Factor IX concentrates unlike factor VIII concentrates have not to date been associated with the transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV). A retrospective study by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction on a batch of factor IX concentrate used to treat two haemophilia B patients who developed jaundice and IgM anti-H AV antibodies within 50 days of factor IX administration in 1985 revealed the presence of HAV RNA. These findings indicate that factor IX concentrates can transmit HAV and that appropriate viral inactivation steps to inactivate nonenveloped viruses as well as enveloped viruses are necessary to ensure the safety of factor IX concentrates.

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