Fifty-three human anti-D monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) revealed a striking diversity of reactions in tests with panels of chimpanzee red blood cells (RBCs) of various R-C-E-F blood group phenotypes (counterparts of the human Rh- Hr groups). The reactivities of these antibodies, which depended on the agglutination technique used, could be classified into four main types. These patterns of reactivity of anti-D mAbs with chimpanzee RBCs showed only limited correlation with types of reactions observed with human D variant RBCs. Primate red cells may, therefore, constitute an independent test system for subclassification of human monoclonal antibodies. Comparison of reactivities of human anti-D mAbs with chimpanzee and human D variant RBCs confirms the homology between the chimpanzee Rc, and the human D antigens. The chimpanzee Rc shares with human D the epitopes epD5, epD6/7 and epD8, but lacks epitopes epD1, epD2, epD3 and epD4 of the Rh mosaic, thus resembling the human D variants IVb and Vc.

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