Previous studies of sensitization to RhD by RhD-positive platelet transfusions in RhD-negative cancer patients have shown different frequencies of alloimmunization (max. 19%). We studied 37 RhD-negative patients who received RhD-incompatible platelet transfusions and simultaneously anti-D-immune globulin. We provide evidence that in this setting RhD-prophylaxis is highly effective in preventing alloimmunization due to RhD antigen, since none of the patients studied developed anti-D. Detection of other red blood cell antibodies than anti-D proves the possibility of immunization in these patients. Prevention of isoimmunization in patients with malignant diseases is recommended especially in young females, since an increasing number of patients are having successful pregnancies, despite prior or even during cytotoxic therapy.