Background: The management of bulky neoplastic lesions in the digestive tract has historically been a surgical pursuit. With advancements in endoscopic techniques, particularly endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), a paradigm shift toward organ preservation has been initiated. These endoscopic methods, developed incrementally since the 1980s, have progressively enabled curative management of lesions with minimal morbidity, challenging the previously unchallenged domain of surgery. Summary: This review traces the evolution of endoscopic resection from snare polypectomy and EMR to sophisticated ESD, highlighting the technological innovations that have expanded the scope of endoscopic resection. It discusses the intricacies of various EMR techniques like underwater EMR, anchoring EMR, and hybrid EMR, alongside traction-assisted methods and the use of viscous solutions for submucosal injection. Additionally, the manuscript delves into the advancements in ESD, emphasizing traction strategies, knife technology, and the optimization of endoscopes. The benefits of these advancements are weighed against the challenges in anatomopathological interpretation posed by piecemeal resections. Key Messages: The continuous amelioration of endoscopic resection techniques has significantly improved the outcomes of digestive tract lesion management, particularly in achieving R0 resections and reducing recurrence rates. These advancements represent a monumental step toward minimizing the invasiveness of lesion management. However, despite the progress, the necessity for early follow-up post-EMR remains due to the non-negligible recurrence rates, underscoring the need for a rigorous postoperative surveillance regimen. Furthermore, our review suggests that while ESD has transformed the therapeutic landscape, its widespread adoption hinges on further simplification, safety enhancement, and acceleration of the procedure, possibly through innovations like adaptive traction devices.

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