Background: Fluorescent imaging using indocyanine green (FI-ICG) has become quite popular in the past century, giving the surgeon various pre- and intraoperative approaches in visceral surgery. Nevertheless, several aspects and pitfalls of using the technology need to be addressed. Summary: This article focused on the applications of FI-ICG in esophageal and colorectal surgery as this is where the clinical relevance is most important. Important benchmark studies were summarized to explain the background. In addition, dosage, the timing of application, and future perspectives – especially quantification methods – were the article’s content. Key Message: There are currently encouraging data on the use of FI-ICG, particularly concerning perfusion assessment to reduce anastomotic leakage, although its use is mainly subjective. The optimal dosage remains unclear; for perfusion evaluation, it should be around 0.1 mg/kg body weight. Moreover, the quantification of FI-ICG opens new possibilities, so that reference values may be available in the future. However, in addition to perfusion measurement, the detection of additional hepatic lesions such as liver metastases or lesions of peritoneal carcinomatosis is also possible. A standardization of FI-ICG and further studies are needed to fully utilize FI-ICG.

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