Background: Spontaneous or postoperative gastrointestinal defects are still life-threatening complications with elevated morbidity and mortality. Recently, endoscopic treatment options – up and foremost endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) – have become increasingly popular and have shown promising results in these patients. Methods: We performed an electronic systematic search of the MEDLINE databases (PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane) and searched for studies evaluating endoscopic options for the treatment of esophageal and colorectal leakages and/or perforations until March 2022. Results: The closure rate of both esophageal and colorectal defects by EVT is high and even exceeds the results of surgical revision in parts. Out of all endoscopic treatment options, EVT shows most evidence and appears to have the highest therapeutic success rates. Furthermore, EVT for both indications had a low rate of serious complications without relevant in-hospital mortality. In selected patients, EVT can be applied without fecal diversion and transferred to an outpatient setting. Conclusion: Despite multiple endoscopic treatment options, EVT is increasingly becoming the new gold standard in endoscopic treatment of extraperitoneal defects of the upper and lower GI tract with localized peritonitis or mediastinitis and without close proximity to major blood vessels. However, further prospective, comparative studies are needed to strengthen the current evidence.

Paun BC, Cassie S, MacLean AR, Dixon E, Buie WD. Postoperative complications following surgery for rectal cancer.
Ann Surg
. 2010 May;251(5):807–18.
Shogan BD, Carlisle EM, Alverdy JC, Umanskiy K. Do we really know why colorectal anastomoses leak?
J Gastrointest Surg
. 2013 Sep;17(9):1698–707.
Jannasch O, Klinge T, Otto R, Chiapponi C, Udelnow A, Lippert H, et al. Risk factors, short and long term outcome of anastomotic leaks in rectal cancer.
. 2015 Nov 3;6(34):36884–93.
Kuhn F, Schardey J, Wirth U, Schiergens T, Crispin A, Beger N, et al. Endoscopic vacuum therapy for the treatment of colorectal leaks: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int J Colorectal Dis
. 2022 Feb;37(2):283–92.
Loske G, Hornoff S, Mende M, Muller C, Faiss S. Postoperative leaks in the gastrointestinal tract-diagnosis and treatment.
. 2022;17(1):47–56.
Kuehn F, Loske G, Schiffmann L, Gock M, Klar E. Endoscopic vacuum therapy for various defects of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
Surg Endosc
. 2017 Sep;31(9):3449–58.
Khan AA, Wheeler JMD, Cunningham C, George B, Kettlewell M, Mortensen NJM. The management and outcome of anastomotic leaks in colorectal surgery.
Colorectal Dis
. 2008 Jul;10(6):587–92.
Liu JF, Wang QZ, Ping YM, Zhang YD. Complications after esophagectomy for cancer: 53-year experience with 20,796 patients.
World J Surg
. 2008 Mar;32(3):395–400.
Blumetti J, Chaudhry V, Cintron JR, Park JJ, Marecik S, Harrison JL, et al. Management of anastomotic leak: lessons learned from a large colon and rectal surgery training program.
World J Surg
. 2014 Apr;38(4):985–91.
Sciuto A, Merola G, De Palma GD, Sodo M, Pirozzi F, Bracale UM, et al. Predictive factors for anastomotic leakage after laparoscopic colorectal surgery.
World J Gastroenterol
. 2018 Jun 7;24(21):2247–60.
Holscher AH, Vallbohmer D, Brabender J. The prevention and management of perioperative complications.
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol
. 2006;20(5):907–23.
van de Wall BJM, Draaisma WA, Schouten ES, Broeders IAMJ, Consten ECJ. Conventional and laparoscopic reversal of the Hartmann procedure: a review of literature.
J Gastrointest Surg
. 2010 Apr;14(4):743–52.
Roig JV, Cantos M, Balciscueta Z, Uribe N, Espinosa J, Rosello V, et al. Hartmann’s operation: how often is it reversed and at what cost? A multicentre study.
Colorectal Dis
. 2011 Dec;13(12):e396–402.
Schniewind B, Schafmayer C, Voehrs G, Egberts J, von Schoenfels W, Rose T, et al. Endoscopic endoluminal vacuum therapy is superior to other regimens in managing anastomotic leakage after esophagectomy: a comparative retrospective study.
Surg Endosc
. 2013 Oct;27(10):3883–90.
Royo-Aznar A, Moro-Valdezate D, Martin-Arevalo J, Pla-Marti V, Garcia-Botello S, Espin-Basany E, et al. Reversal of Hartmann’s procedure: a single-centre experience of 533 consecutive cases.
Colorectal Dis
. 2018 Jul;20(7):631–8.
Snijders HS, Wouters MWJM, van Leersum NJ, Kolfschoten NE, Henneman D, de Vries AC, et al. Meta-analysis of the risk for anastomotic leakage, the postoperative mortality caused by leakage in relation to the overall postoperative mortality.
Eur J Surg Oncol
. 2012 Nov;38(11):1013–9.
Kuhn F, Zimmermann J, Beger N, Wirth U, Hasenhutl SM, Drefs M, et al. Endoscopic vacuum therapy for treatment of rectal stump leakage.
Surg Endosc
. 2021 Apr;35(4):1749–54.
Kuhn F, Hasenhutl SM, Hofmann FO, Wirth U, Drefs M, Werner J, et al. Endoscopic vacuum therapy for left-sided colorectal anastomotic leak without fecal diversion.
Dis Colon Rectum
. 2022 Mar 1;65(3):421–8.
Fleischmann W, Strecker W, Bombelli M, Kinzl L. Vacuum sealing as treatment of soft tissue damage in open fractures.
. 1993 Sep;96(9):488–92.
Argenta LC, Morykwas MJ. Vacuum-assisted closure: a new method for wound control and treatment: clinical experience.
Ann Plast Surg
. 1997 Jun;38(6):563–76; discussion 577.
Weidenhagen R, Gruetzner KU, Wiecken T, Spelsberg F, Jauch KW. Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure of anastomotic leakage following anterior resection of the rectum: a new method.
Surg Endosc
. 2008 Aug;22(8):1818–25.
Shalaby M, Emile S, Elfeki H, Sakr A, Wexner SD, Sileri P. Systematic review of endoluminal vacuum-assisted therapy as salvage treatment for rectal anastomotic leakage.
BJS Open
. 2019 Apr;3(2):153–60.
Chorti A, Stavrou G, Stelmach V, Tsaousi G, Michalopoulos A, Papavramidis TS, et al. Endoscopic repair of anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection for rectal cancer: a systematic review.
Asian J Endosc Surg
. 2020 Apr;13(2):141–6.
Kuhn F, Janisch F, Schwandner F, Gock M, Wedermann N, Witte M, et al. Comparison between endoscopic vacuum therapy and conventional treatment for leakage after rectal resection.
World J Surg
. 2020 Apr;44(4):1277–82.
Kuhn F, Wirth U, Zimmermann J, Beger N, Hasenhutl SM, Drefs M, et al. Endoscopic vacuum therapy for in- and outpatient treatment of colorectal defects.
Surg Endosc
. 2021 Dec;35(12):6687–95.
Kuehn F, Janisch F, Schwandner F, Alsfasser G, Schiffmann L, Gock M, et al. Endoscopic vacuum therapy in colorectal surgery.
J Gastrointest Surg
. 2016 Feb;20(2):328–34.
Strauss C, Mal F, Perniceni T, Bouzar N, Lenoir S, Gayet B, et al. Computed tomography versus water-soluble contrast swallow in the detection of intrathoracic anastomotic leak complicating esophagogastrectomy (Ivor Lewis): a prospective study in 97 patients.
Ann Surg
. 2010 Apr;251(4):647–51.
Plat VD, Bootsma BT, Straatman J, van den Bergh J, van Waesberghe JHTM, Luttikhold J, et al. The clinical suspicion of a leaking intrathoracic esophagogastric anastomosis: the role of CT imaging.
J Thorac Dis
. 2020 Dec;12(12):7182–92.
Adamenko O, Ferrari C, Seewald S, Schmidt J. Prophylactic endoluminal vacuum therapy after major gastrointestinal surgery: a systematic review.
Updates Surg
. 2022 Mar 9;74(4):1177–86.
Kuehn F, Schiffmann L, Janisch F, Schwandner F, Alsfasser G, Gock M, et al. Surgical endoscopic vacuum therapy for defects of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
J Gastrointest Surg
. 2016 Feb;20(2):237–43.
Chopra SS, Mrak K, Hunerbein M. The effect of endoscopic treatment on healing of anastomotic leaks after anterior resection of rectal cancer.
. 2009 Feb;145(2):182–8.
Vermeulen J, Coene PPLO, Van Hout NM, van der Harst E, Gosselink MP, Mannaerts GHH, et al. Restoration of bowel continuity after surgery for acute perforated diverticulitis: should Hartmann’s procedure be considered a one-stage procedure?
Colorectal Dis
. 2009 Jul;11(6):619–24.
Hallam S, Mothe BS, Tirumulaju R. Hartmann’s procedure, reversal and rate of stoma-free survival.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl
. 2018 Apr;100(4):301–7.
Schiffmann L, Wedermann N, Schwandner F, Gock M, Klar E, Kuhn F. Neoadjuvant radio-chemotherapy prolongs healing of anastomotic leakage after rectal resection treated with endoscopic vacuum therapy.
Therap Adv Gastroenterol
. 2019;12:1756284819877606.
Rijcken E, Sachs L, Fuchs T, Spiegel HU, Neumann PA. Growth factors and gastrointestinal anastomotic healing.
J Surg Res
. 2014 Mar;187(1):202–10.
Horisberger K, Hofheinz RD, Palma P, Volkert AK, Rothenhoefer S, Wenz F, et al. Tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation in rectal cancer: predictor for surgical morbidity?
Int J Colorectal Dis
. 2008 Mar;23(3):257–64.
Thorgersen EB, Goscinski MA, Spasojevic M, Solbakken AM, Mariathasan AB, Boye K, et al. Deep pelvic surgical site infection after radiotherapy and surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer.
Ann Surg Oncol
. 2017 Mar;24(3):721–8.
von Bernstorff W, Glitsch A, Schreiber A, Partecke LI, Heidecke CD. ETVARD (endoscopic transanal vacuum-assisted rectal drainage) leads to complete but delayed closure of extraperitoneal rectal anastomotic leakage cavities following neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy.
Int J Colorectal Dis
. 2009 Jul;24(7):819–25.
Abdalla S, Cotte E, Epin A, Karoui M, Lefevre JH, Berger A, et al. Short-term and long-term outcome of endoluminal vacuum therapy for colorectal or coloanal anastomotic leakage: results of a nationwide multicenter cohort study from the French GRECCAR group.
Dis Colon Rectum
. 2020 Mar;63(3):371–80.
Barbieux J, Plumereau F, Hamy A. Current indications for the Hartmann procedure.
J Visc Surg
. 2016 Feb;153(1):31–8.
Gardenbroek TJ, Musters GD, Buskens CJ, Ponsioen CY, D’Haens GRAM, Dijkgraaf MGW, et al. Early reconstruction of the leaking ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: a novel solution to an old problem.
Colorectal Dis
. 2015 May;17(5):426–32.
Mahendran B, Rossi B, Coleman M, Smolarek S. The use of endo-SPONGE® in rectal anastomotic leaks: a systematic review.
Tech Coloproctol
. 2020 Jul;24(7):685–94.
Low DE, Alderson D, Cecconello I, Chang AC, Darling GE, D’Journo XB, et al. International consensus on standardization of data collection for complications associated with esophagectomy: Esophagectomy Complications Consensus Group (ECCG).
Ann Surg
. 2015 Aug;262(2):286–94.
Kuhn F, Rau BM, Klar E, Schiffmann L. Endoscopic vacuum therapy after iatrogenic oesophageal perforation: a case report.
Zentralbl Chir
. 2014 Feb;139(1):98–100.
Ahrens M, Schulte T, Egberts J, Schafmayer C, Hampe J, Fritscher-Ravens A, et al. Drainage of esophageal leakage using endoscopic vacuum therapy: a prospective pilot study.
. 2010 Sep;42(9):693–8.
Weidenhagen R, Hartl WH, Gruetzner KU, Eichhorn ME, Spelsberg F, Jauch KW. Anastomotic leakage after esophageal resection: new treatment options by endoluminal vacuum therapy.
Ann Thorac Surg
. 2010 Nov;90(5):1674–81.
Loske G, Schorsch T, Muller C. Intraluminal and intracavitary vacuum therapy for esophageal leakage: a new endoscopic minimally invasive approach.
. 2011 Jun;43(6):540–4.
Kuehn F, Schiffmann L, Rau BM, Klar E. Surgical endoscopic vacuum therapy for anastomotic leakage and perforation of the upper gastrointestinal tract.
J Gastrointest Surg
. 2012 Nov;16(11):2145–50.
Kuehn F, Klar E, Schwandner F, Alsfasser G, Gock M, Schiffmann L. Endoscopic continuity-preserving therapy for esophageal stenosis and perforation following colliquative necrosis.
. 2014;46(Suppl 1 UCTN):E361–2.
Rausa E, Asti E, Aiolfi A, Bianco F, Bonitta G, Bonavina L. Comparison of endoscopic vacuum therapy versus endoscopic stenting for esophageal leaks: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Dis Esophagus
. 2018 Nov 1;31(11).
de Moura DTH, do Monte Junior ES, Hathorn KE, de Medeiros FS, Thompson CC, de Moura EGH. Modified endoscopic vacuum therapy in the management of a duodenal transmural defect.
. 2021 Jan;53(1):E17–8.
Loske G, Schorsch T, van Ackeren V, Schulze W, Muller CT. Endoscopic vacuum therapy in Boerhaave’s syndrome with open-pore polyurethane foam and a new open-pore film drainage.
. 2015;47(Suppl 1 UCTN):E410–1.
Singh RR, Nussbaum JS, Kumta NA. Endoscopic management of perforations, leaks and fistulas.
Transl Gastroenterol Hepatol
. 2018;3:85.
van Boeckel PGA, Sijbring A, Vleggaar FP, Siersema PD. Systematic review: temporary stent placement for benign rupture or anastomotic leak of the oesophagus.
Aliment Pharmacol Ther
. 2011 Jun;33(12):1292–301.
Cereatti F, Grassia R, Drago A, Conti CB, Donatelli G. Endoscopic management of gastrointestinal leaks and fistulae: what option do we have?
World J Gastroenterol
. 2020 Aug 7;26(29):4198–217.
van Boeckel PGA, Dua KS, Weusten BLAM, Schmits RJH, Surapaneni N, Timmer R, et al. Fully covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMS), partially covered SEMS and self-expandable plastic stents for the treatment of benign esophageal ruptures and anastomotic leaks.
BMC Gastroenterol
. 2012 Feb 29;12:19.
Saxena P, Khashab MA. Endoscopic management of esophageal perforations: who, when, and how?
Curr Treat Options Gastroenterol
. 2017 Mar;15(1):35–45.
Bakken JC, Wong Kee Song LM, de Groen PC, Baron TH. Use of a fully covered self-expandable metal stent for the treatment of benign esophageal diseases.
Gastrointest Endosc
. 2010 Oct;72(4):712–20.
van Halsema EE, van Hooft JE. Clinical outcomes of self-expandable stent placement for benign esophageal diseases: a pooled analysis of the literature.
World J Gastrointest Endosc
. 2015 Feb 16;7(2):135–53.
Hunerbein M, Stroszczynski C, Moesta KT, Schlag PM. Treatment of thoracic anastomotic leaks after esophagectomy with self-expanding plastic stents.
Ann Surg
. 2004 Nov;240(5):801–7.
Loske G, Rucktaeschel F, Schorsch T, Moenkemueller K, Mueller CT. Endoscopic negative pressure therapy (ENPT) for duodenal leakage: novel repair technique using open-pore film (OFD) and polyurethane-foam drainages (OPD).
Endosc Int Open
. 2019 Nov;7(11):E1424–31.
Morell B, Murray F, Vetter D, Bueter M, Gubler C. Endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) for early infradiaphragmal leakage after bariatric surgery-outcomes of six consecutive cases in a single institution.
Langenbecks Arch Surg
. 2019 Feb;404(1):115–21.
Archid R, Bazerbachi F, Abu Dayyeh BK, Hones F, Ahmad SJS, Thiel K, et al. Endoscopic negative pressure therapy (ENPT) is superior to stent therapy for staple line leak after sleeve gastrectomy: a single-center cohort study.
Obes Surg
. 2021 Jun;31(6):2511–9.
Fischer A, Richter-Schrag HJ, Hoeppner J, Braun A, Utzolino S. Endoscopic intracavitary pull-through vacuum treatment of an insufficient pancreaticogastrostomy.
. 2014;46(Suppl 1 UCTN):E218–9.
van Koperen PJ, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Rosman C, Bakker CM, Heres P, Slors JFM, et al. The Dutch multicenter experience of the endo-sponge treatment for anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery.
Surg Endosc
. 2009 Jun;23(6):1379–83.
Thomas MS, Margolin DA. Management of colorectal anastomotic leak.
Clin Colon Rectal Surg
. 2016 Jun;29(2):138–44.
Loske G, Schorsch T, Muller CT. Prevention of reflux after esophagectomy with endoscopic negative pressure therapy using a new double-lumen open-pore film drainage with an intestinal feeding tube.
. 2017 Dec;49(12):E294–5.
Neumann PA, Mennigen R, Palmes D, Senninger N, Vowinkel T, Laukoetter MG. Pre-emptive endoscopic vacuum therapy for treatment of anastomotic ischemia after esophageal resections.
. 2017 May;49(5):498–503.
Muller PC, Morell B, Vetter D, Raptis DA, Kapp JR, Gubler C, et al. Preemptive endoluminal vacuum therapy to reduce morbidity after minimally invasive Ivor Lewis esophagectomy: including a novel grading system for postoperative endoscopic assessment of GI-anastomoses.
Ann Surg
. 2021 Nov 1;274(5):751–7.
Loske G, Muller J, Schulze W, Riefel B, Muller CT. Pre-emptive active drainage of reflux (PARD) in Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy with negative pressure and simultaneous enteral nutrition using a double-lumen open-pore film drain (dOFD).
Surg Endosc
. 2022 Mar;36(3):2208–16.
Lehwald-Tywuschik NC, Alexander A, Alkhanji N, Flugen G, Fung S, Rehders A, et al. The “impossible” rectal anastomosis: a novel use for endoluminal vacuum-assisted therapy.
Tech Coloproctol
. 2021 Jan;25(1):125–30.
Mandarino FV, Barchi A, Biamonte P, Esposito D, Azzolini F, Fanti L, et al. The prophylactic use of endoscopic vacuum therapy for anastomotic dehiscence after rectal anterior resection: is it feasible for redo surgery?
Tech Coloproctol
. 2022 Apr;26(4):319–20.
Koperna T. Cost-effectiveness of defunctioning stomas in low anterior resections for rectal cancer: a call for benchmarking.
Arch Surg
. 2003 Dec;138(12):1334–9.
Floodeen H, Hallbook O, Hagberg LA, Matthiessen P. Costs and resource use following defunctioning stoma in low anterior resection for cancer: a long-term analysis of a randomized multicenter trial.
Eur J Surg Oncol
. 2017 Feb;43(2):330–6.
Nagell CF, Holte K. Treatment of anastomotic leakage after rectal resection with transrectal vacuum-assisted drainage (VAC). A method for rapid control of pelvic sepsis and healing.
Int J Colorectal Dis
. 2006 Oct;21(7):657–60.
Mees ST, Palmes D, Mennigen R, Senninger N, Haier J, Bruewer M. Endo-vacuum assisted closure treatment for rectal anastomotic insufficiency.
Dis Colon Rectum
. 2008 Apr;51(4):404–10.
Riss S, Stift A, Kienbacher C, Dauser B, Haunold I, Kriwanek S, et al. Recurrent abscess after primary successful endo-sponge treatment of anastomotic leakage following rectal surgery.
World J Gastroenterol
. 2010 Sep 28;16(36):4570–4.
Nerup N, Johansen JL, Alkhefagie GAA, Maina P, Jensen KH. Promising results after endoscopic vacuum treatment of anastomotic leakage following resection of rectal cancer with ileostomy.
Dan Med J
. 2013 Apr;60(4):A4604.
Srinivasamurthy D, Wood C, Slater R, Garner J. An initial experience using transanal vacuum therapy in pelvic anastomotic leakage.
Tech Coloproctol
. 2013 Jun;17(3):275–81.
Arezzo A, Verra M, Passera R, Bullano A, Rapetti L, Morino M. Long-term efficacy of endoscopic vacuum therapy for the treatment of colorectal anastomotic leaks.
Dig Liver Dis
. 2015 Apr;47(4):342–5.
Keskin M, Bayram O, Bulut T, Balik E. Effectiveness of endoluminal vacuum-assisted closure therapy (Endosponge) for the treatment of pelvic anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery.
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech
. 2015 Dec;25(6):505–8.
Strangio G, Zullo A, Ferrara EC, Anderloni A, Carlino A, Jovani M, et al. Endo-sponge therapy for management of anastomotic leakages after colorectal surgery: a case series and review of literature.
Dig Liver Dis
. 2015 Jun;47(6):465–9.
Manta R, Caruso A, Cellini C, Sica M, Zullo A, Mirante VG, et al. Endoscopic management of patients with post-surgical leaks involving the gastrointestinal tract: a large case series.
United European Gastroenterol J
. 2016 Dec;4(6):770–7.
Milito G, Lisi G, Venditti D, Campanelli M, Aronadio E, Grande S, et al. Endoluminal vacuum therapy as treatment for anastomotic colorectal leakage.
Surg Technol Int
. 2017 Jan 10;30:125–30.
Mussetto A, Arena R, Buzzi A, Fuccio L, Dari S, Brancaccio ML, et al. Long-term efficacy of vacuum-assisted therapy (Endo-SPONGE®) in large anastomotic leakages following anterior rectal resection.
Ann Gastroenterol
. 2017;30(6):649–53.
Borstlap WAA, Musters GD, Stassen LPS, van Westreenen HL, Hess D, van Dieren S, et al. Vacuum-assisted early transanal closure of leaking low colorectal anastomoses: the CLEAN study.
Surg Endosc
. 2018 Jan;32(1):315–27.
Jimenez-Rodriguez RM, Araujo-Miguez A, Sobrino-Rodriguez S, Heller F, Diaz-Pavon JM, Bozada Garcia JM, et al. A new perspective on vacuum-assisted closure for the treatment of anastomotic leak following low anterior resection for rectal cancer, is it worthy?
Surg Innov
. 2018 Aug;25(4):350–6.
Rottoli M, Di Simone MP, Vallicelli C, Vittori L, Liguori G, Boschi L, et al. Endoluminal vacuum-assisted therapy as treatment for anastomotic leak after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: a pilot study.
Tech Coloproctol
. 2018 Mar;22(3):223–9.
Huisman JF, van Westreenen HL, van der Wouden EJ, Vasen HFA, de Graaf EJR, Doornebosch PG, et al. Effectiveness of endosponge therapy for the management of presacral abscesses following rectal surgery.
Tech Coloproctol
. 2019 Jun;23(6):551–7.
Kantowski M, Kunze A, Bellon E, Rosch T, Settmacher U, Tachezy M. Improved colorectal anastomotic leakage healing by transanal rinsing treatment after endoscopic vacuum therapy using a novel patient-applied rinsing catheter.
Int J Colorectal Dis
. 2020 Jan;35(1):109–17.
Wereen A, Dahlberg M, Heinius G, Pieniowski E, Saraste D, Eklov K, et al. Long-term results after anastomotic leakage following rectal cancer surgery: a comparison of treatment with endo-sponge and transanal irrigation.
Dig Surg
. 2020;37(6):456–62.
Garg PK, Goel A, Sharma S, Chishi N, Gaur MK. Protective diversion stoma in low anterior resection for rectal cancer: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Visc Med
. 2019 Jun;35(3):156–60.
Sint A, Lutz R, Assenmacher M, Kuchenhoff H, Kuhn F, Faist E, et al. Monocytic HLA-DR expression for prediction of anastomotic leak after colorectal surgery.
J Am Coll Surg
. 2019 Aug;229(2):200–9.
Clifford RE, Fowler H, Govindarajah N, Vimalachandran D, Sutton PA. Early anastomotic complications in colorectal surgery: a systematic review of techniques for endoscopic salvage.
Surg Endosc
. 2019 Apr;33(4):1049–65.
Hunerbein M, Krause M, Moesta KT, Rau B, Schlag PM. Palliation of malignant rectal obstruction with self-expanding metal stents.
. 2005 Jan;137(1):42–7.
Arezzo A, Bini R, Lo Secco G, Verra M, Passera R. The role of stents in the management of colorectal complications: a systematic review.
Surg Endosc
. 2017 Jul;31(7):2720–30.
Tachezy M, Chon SH, Rieck I, Kantowski M, Christ H, Karstens K, et al. Endoscopic vacuum therapy versus stent treatment of esophageal anastomotic leaks (ESOLEAK): study protocol for a prospective randomized phase 2 trial.
. 2021 Jun 2;22(1):377.
Verlaan T, Bartels SAL, van Berge Henegouwen MI, Tanis PJ, Fockens P, Bemelman WA. Early, minimally invasive closure of anastomotic leaks: a new concept.
Colorectal Dis
. 2011 Nov;13(Suppl 7):18–22.
Popivanov GI, Mutafchiyski VM, Cirocchi R, Chipeva SD, Vasilev VV, Kjossev KT, et al. Endoluminal negative pressure therapy in colorectal anastomotic leaks.
Colorectal Dis
. 2020 Mar;22(3):243–53.
Ji WB, Kwak JM, Kim J, Um JW, Kim SH. Risk factors causing structural sequelae after anastomotic leakage in mid to low rectal cancer.
World J Gastroenterol
. 2015 May 21;21(19):5910–7.
Kiely JM, Fazio VW, Remzi FH, Shen B, Kiran RP. Pelvic sepsis after IPAA adversely affects function of the pouch and quality of life.
Dis Colon Rectum
. 2012 Apr;55(4):387–92.
Ashburn JH, Stocchi L, Kiran RP, Dietz DW, Remzi FH. Consequences of anastomotic leak after restorative proctectomy for cancer: effect on long-term function and quality of life.
Dis Colon Rectum
. 2013 Mar;56(3):275–80.
Mongin C, Maggiori L, Agostini J, Ferron M, Panis Y. Does anastomotic leakage impair functional results and quality of life after laparoscopic sphincter-saving total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer? A case-matched study.
Int J Colorectal Dis
. 2014 Apr;29(4):459–67.
Croese AD, Lonie JM, Trollope AF, Vangaveti VN, Ho YH. A meta-analysis of the prevalence of low anterior resection syndrome and systematic review of risk factors.
Int J Surg
. 2018 Aug;56:234–41.
Keane C, Fearnhead NS, Bordeianou LG, Christensen P, Basany EE, Laurberg S, et al. International consensus definition of low anterior resection syndrome.
Dis Colon Rectum
. 2020 Mar;63(3):274–84.
Garfinkle R, Boutros M. Low anterior resection syndrome: predisposing factors and treatment.
Surg Oncol
. 2021 Nov;25:101691.
Stelzner S, Kupsch J, Mees ST. Low anterior resection syndrome-causes and treatment approaches.
. 2021 Jul;92(7):612–20.
Loske G, Schorsch T, Rucktaeschel F, Schulze W, Riefel B, van Ackeren V, et al. Open-pore film drainage (OFD): a new multipurpose tool for endoscopic negative pressure therapy (ENPT).
Endosc Int Open
. 2018 Jul;6(7):E865–71.
Valli PV, Mertens JC, Kroger A, Gubler C, Gutschow C, Schneider PM, et al. Stent-over-sponge (SOS): a novel technique complementing endosponge therapy for foregut leaks and perforations.
. 2018 Feb;50(2):148–53.
Lange J, Dormann A, Bulian DR, Hugle U, Eisenberger CF, Heiss MM. VACStent: combining the benefits of endoscopic vacuum therapy and covered stents for upper gastrointestinal tract leakage.
Endosc Int Open
. 2021 Jun;9(6):E971–6.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.