Die gastroösophageale Refluxkrankheit zählt zu den häufigsten internistischen Krankheitsbildern. Die möglichen klinischen Manifestationen betreffen sowohl ösophageale als auch extraösophageale Symptome. Etablierte extraösophageale Assoziationen sind Refluxhusten, Refluxlaryngitis, Refluxasthma, dentale Erosionen und Schlafstörungen. Bei fehlendem diagnostischem Goldstandard beschränkt sich die Diagnostik häufig in der probatorisch hoch dosierten und lang genug durchgeführten Therapie mit Protonenpumpenblockern (PPI). Die in den letzten Jahren durchgeführten kontrollierten Studien zeigen, dass sich extraösophageale Symptome häufig nur dann bessern, wenn gleichzeitig eine Refluxkrankheit mit typischen Symptomen vorliegt. Bestehen keine Refluxsymptome, ist eine dem extraösophagealen Symptom zugrunde liegende Refluxgenese unwahrscheinlich und somit eine probatorische PPI-Therapie nur in Ausnahmefällen sinnvoll.

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