Objective: Upper urinary calculi (UUC) is considered to be a comprehensive disease associated with many risk factors, but the role of physical activity (PA) is undefined. Here, we conducted a cross-sectional study to investigate this relationship in Asian populations. Materials and Methods: Patients diagnosed with UUC were the subjects of study and those who participated in a health examination in local medical center were included as controls. Information was collected through the same standard questionnaire. A metabolic equivalent score (METs) was measured for each kind of activity. OR of UUC in categories of PA were determined by logistic regression. Results: A total of 1,782 controls and 1,517 cases were enrolled. People who took higher PA (5-9.9, 10-19.9, 20-29.9 and >30 METs/wk) weekly were associated with lower risks of UUC than those took lower PA (<4.9 METs/wk) after adjusting for age, ethnicity, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, water intake, history of gout, history of diabetes mellitus, history of supplemental calcium use and history of hypertension (adjusted OR 0.11, 0.32, 0.24, 0.34; 95% CI 0.08-0.15, 0.23-0.43, 0.15-0.40, 0.22-0.53, respectively; p value <0.001). Conclusions: In our cross-sectional study, PA was associated with UUC.

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