Objective: The study aimed to explore the effects of B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2)-modified bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation for the treatment of diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMED) in a rat model. Methods: The DMED rat model was successfully established. Thirty-six DMED rats were assigned into the Bcl-2-BMSCs, null-BMSCs, BMSCs and phosphate buffered saline (PBS) groups. Meanwhile, 9 normal rats injected with PBS were taken as the normal control group. Results: In the Bcl-2-BMSCs group, the average times of erection, rate of erection, peak intra-cavernous pressure (ICP) and peak ICP/mean arterial pressure were higher than those in the null-BMSCs, BMSCs and PBS groups, but were lower than those in the normal control group. In the Bcl-2-BMSCs group, capillary vessels and Bcl-2 mRNA and protein expressions were similar to those in the normal control group, while they were higher than those in other groups. Conclusion: These findings indicate that Bcl-2-modified BMSC transplantation could improve erectile function in DMED rats.

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