Background: Testicular torsion is an emergency condition in which spermatogenesis may be irreversibly damaged. There have been controversial results about the effect of testicular torsion on steroidogenesis. We aimed at investigating the effect of testicular torsion on steroidogenesis. Material and Methods: A total of 40 adult male rats were divided into 4 groups. Left testicles were removed in all groups. Right testicles were torsioned and remained in the torsion position for 1, 3 and 5 h in study groups, whereas no torsion was performed in control. Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) and total testosterone (TT) levels were measured on the 3rd and 30th days of surgery and orchiectomy was performed on the 30th day of testicular torsion for histopathological evaluation. Results: TT levels of study groups were significantly lower than that of the control group on the 3rd day of torsion. LH of study groups was higher than that of the control group, but the difference was significant only in the 5 h-torsion group. The total number of Leydig cells increased in 1- and 3-h groups, whereas it decreased in the 5-hour group. Conclusion: Testosterone production and Leydig cell functions significantly decreased after 5 h torsion in the rat model. The duration of torsion less than 5 h yielded partial dysfunction on steroidogenesis.

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