Introduction: This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, in combination with first-line chemotherapy in advanced urothelial cancer. Methods: Chemotherapy-naïve patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma were randomized 1:1:1 to receive six cycles of chemotherapy (gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8, and cisplatin 70 mg/m2 on day 1 of every cycle) concomitantly with gefitinib 250 mg/day (arm A); or with sequential gefitinib (arm B); or alone (arm C). The primary endpoint was the time to progression (TTP). Results: A total of 105 patients received study treatment. Median TTP for arms A, B, and C were 6.1, 6.3, and 7.8 months, respectively. There were no significant differences between treatment arms for any outcomes measured. The most common adverse events were nausea and vomiting. Conclusion: Gefitinib in combination with chemotherapy did not improve efficacy in advanced urothelial cancer.

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