Introduction: Infertility in adulthood is a well-recognized consequence of cryptorchidism, even after successful orchidopexy. Autoimmune reactions against spermatozoa are associated with infertility and often found in cryptorchids. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the linkage between antisperm antibody (ASA) and cryptorchidism, and furthermore, to clarify whether ASA is involved in cryptorchidism-associated infertility. Materials and Methods: We investigated a total of 48 infertile males with a history of unilateral (n = 30) or bilateral (n = 18) cryptorchidism who had undergone successful orchidopexy in prepuberty, and 20 age-matched fertile and healthy males were collected as controls. ASA in sperm samples was detected by the direct immunobead test, and semen analysis was performed concomitantly. Results: No infertile case satisfied the diagnostic criteria of ASA-mediated infertility set forth by the World Health Organization. Decreases in both sperm concentration and motility accompanied by increases in abnormal morphology were seen in infertile cryptorchids when compared with the healthy controls. Conclusions: Testicular heat exposure in prepuberty is not a risk factor for ASA production. It is evident that the mechanisms that underlie cryptorchidism-associated infertility do not involve ASA. Poor sperm characteristics in cryptorchids resulting from thermal damage to the testes seem to be responsible for their infertility, even after successful orchidopexy.

Chung E, Brock GB: Cryptorchidism and its impact on male fertility: a state of art review of current literature. Can Urol Assoc J 2011;5:210-214.
Hadziselimovic F, Hocht B, Herzog B, Buser MW: Infertility in cryptorchidism is linked to the stage of germ cell development at orchidopexy. Horm Res 2007;68:46-52.
Tzvetkova P, Wei-Jie Z, Tzvetkov D: Semen quality in infertile men with a history of unilateral cryptorchidism. J Reprod Contracept 2004;15:139-143.
Kurpisz M, Havryluk A, Nakonechnyj A, Chopyak V, Kamieniczna M: Cryptorchidism and long-term consequences. Reprod Biol 2010;10:19-35.
Urry RL, Carrell DT, Starr NT, Snow BW, Middleton RG: The incidence of antisperm antibodies in infertility patients with a history of cryptorchidism. J Urol 1994;151:381-383.
Francavilla F, Santucci R, Barbonetti A, Francavilla S: Naturally-occurring antisperm antibodies in men: interference with fertility and clinical implications. An update. Front Biosci 2007;12:2890-2911.
Hobarth K, Klingler HC, Maier U, Kollaritsch H: Incidence of antisperm antibodies in patients with carcinoma of the testis and in subfertile men with normogonadotropic oligoasthenoteratozoospermia. Urol Int 1994;52:162-165.
Chen M, Cai H, Yang JL, et al: Effect of heat stress on expression of junction-associated molecules and upstream factors androgen receptor and Wilms' tumor 1 in monkey Sertoli cells. Endocrinology 2008;149:4871-4882.
Domagala A, Havryluk A, Nakonechnyj A, Kamieniczna M, Chopyak V, Kurpisz M: Antisperm antibodies in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism. Arch Androl 2006;52:411-416.
Sinisi AA, Pasquali D, Papparella A, et al: Antisperm antibodies in cryptorchidism before and after surgery. J Urol 1998;160:1834-1837.
Lenzi A, Gandini L, Lombardo F, et al: Unilateral cryptorchidism corrected in prepubertal age: evaluation of sperm parameters, hormones, and antisperm antibodies in adult age. Fertil Steril 1997;67:943-948.
Patel RP, Kolon TF, Huff DS, et al: Testicular microlithiasis and antisperm antibodies following testicular biopsy in boys with cryptorchidism. J Urol 2005;174:2008-2010.
Mirilas P, Mamoulakis C, De Almeida M: Puberty does not induce serum antisperm surface antibodies in patients with previously operated cryptorchidism. J Urol 2003;170:2432-2435.
Mirilas P, Panayiotides I, Mentessidou A, et al: Effect of testis nondescent or orchidopexy on antisperm antibodies and testis histology in rats. Fertil Steril 2010;94:1504-1509.
World Health Organization: WHO Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Sperm-Cervical Mucus Interaction, ed 4. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Aktas C, Kanter M: A morphological study on Leydig cells of scrotal hyperthermia applied rats in short-term. J Mol Histol 2009;40:31-39.
Kanter M, Aktas C: Effects of scrotal hyperthermia on Leydig cells in the long term: a histological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural study in rats. J Mol Histol 2009;40:123-130.
Main SJ, Waites GM: The blood-testis barrier and temperature damage to the testis of the rat. J Reprod Fertil 1977;51:439-450.
Setchell BP, Tao L, Zupp JL: The penetration of chromium-EDTA from blood plasma into various compartments of rat testes as an indicator of function of the blood-testis barrier after exposure of the testes to heat. J Reprod Fertil 1996;106:125-133.
Tao L, Zupp JL, Setchell BP: Effect of efferent duct ligation on the function of the blood-testis barrier in rats. J Reprod Fertil 2000;120:13-18.
Yarmolenko PS, Moon EJ, Landon C, et al: Thresholds for thermal damage to normal tissues: an update. Int J Hyperthermia 2011;27:320-343.
Paul C, Melton DW, Saunders PT: Do heat stress and deficits in DNA repair pathways have a negative impact on male fertility? Mol Hum Reprod 2008;14:1-8.
Paul C, Murray AA, Spears N, Saunders PT: A single, mild, transient scrotal heat stress causes DNA damage, subfertility and impairs formation of blastocysts in mice. Reproduction 2008;136:73-84.
Trsinar B, Muravec UR: Fertility potential after unilateral and bilateral orchidopexy for cryptorchidism. World J Urol 2009;27:513-519.
Dada R, Gupta NP, Kucheria K: Spermatogenic arrest in men with testicular hyperthermia. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen 2003;23:235-243.
Mieusset R, Fouda PJ, Vaysse P, Guitard J, Moscovici J, Juskiewenski S: Increase in testicular temperature in case of cryptorchidism in boys. Fertil Steril 1993;59:1319-1321.
Huff DS, Fenig DM, Canning DA, Carr MG, Zderic SA, Snyder HM 3rd: Abnormal germ cell development in cryptorchidism. Horm Res 2001;55:11-17.
Sijstermans K, Hack WW, van der Voort-Doedens LM, Meijer RW: Long-term testicular growth and position after orchidopexy for congenital undescended testis. Urol Int 2009;83:438-445.
Michikawa T, Matsufuji H, Araki Y, Nakamura A: Does early orchidopexy prevent morphological changes in undescended testes? A perioperative assessment using ultrasonography. Urol Int 2008;81:210-214.
Mathers MJ, Sperling H, Rubben H, Roth S: The undescended testis: diagnosis, treatment and long-term consequences. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2009;106:527-532.
Murphy F, Paran TS, Puri P: Orchidopexy and its impact on fertility. Pediatr Surg Int 2007;23:625-632.
Kokorowski PJ, Routh JC, Graham DA, Nelson CP: Variations in timing of surgery among boys who underwent orchidopexy for cryptorchidism. Pediatrics 2010;126:e576-e582.
Golabek T, Kiely E: Patterns of referral and treatment of undescended testis: a 12-year experience in a single centre. Ir J Med Sci 2010;179:511-514.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.