Introduction: The aim of our study was to evaluate the significance of transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) to detect prostate cancer (PCa). A comparison was performed of the TURP specimens of patients undergoing high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) with the core biopsies. Materials and Methods: TURP before undergoing HIFU therapy was performed in 106 patients without neoadjuvant treatment. The resected tissue was subjected to histopathological evaluation and compared to the histological results of transrectal prostate biopsy. Results: Cancer was detected in the resected tissue of 69 patients (65%). A positive correlation of the amount of resected tissue and detection of PCa could be demonstrated in a multivariate analysis. Conclusions: With a rate of 65% PCa detected by TURP, our data provide evidence that TURP might be suitable to detect PCa in a small group of selected patients with continuously rising PSA levels and several negative biopsies. On the other hand, these data underline/reinforce the necessity to treat the whole gland using modern treatment modalities such as HIFU and cryotherapy.

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