Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of long-term treatment with two different antimuscarinics, imidafenacin and solifenacin, in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). Patients and Methods: Male or female patients 20 years of age or older who had urgency (more than 1 episode in 24 h) were randomized into two groups: group I, imidafenacin (0.1 mg twice daily), and group S, solifenacin (5 mg once daily) for a 12-month treatment regimen. Subjective and objective symptoms were assessed before, and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after treatment. Results: A total of 109 patients, including 55 (mean age: 72.0 years) in group I and 54 (mean age: 70.4 years) in group S, were treated. Subjective symptoms were significantly improved in group I and S after treatment. Dry mouth significantly worsened in both groups. However, the duration of dry mouth in group I was significantly shorter than that in group S. Three (5.8%) and 7 (13.5%) patients discontinued treatment due to adverse events in group I and group S, respectively. Conclusions: Imidafenacin and solifenacin were efficacious, safe, and well-tolerated treatments for OAB. As for adverse events, group I had fewer than group S.

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