Objective: Colour blindness might lead to failure in recognizing frank haematuria. Our aim is to investigate as to whether colour-blind males who develop bladder cancer present later with less favourable histology. Patients and Methods: Two hundred male patients with bladder cancer were assessed using Ishihara plate test for colour deficiency. Degree of haematuria, method of presentation and initial histologic findings were also determined. Results: Colour-blind patients who develop bladder cancer present with less favourable histology compared with non-colour-blind (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Colour blindness was associated with presentation with more advanced bladder tumours.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.