Objective: Several authors have investigated the background of the process of testicular descent, but the role of the appendix testis has not been studied. The human appendix testis was found to express both estrogen and androgen receptors. We determined and compared the occurrence of testicular appendices intraoperatively in descended and undescended testes. Methods: The number of appendix testis was evaluated retrospectively in 208 boys who underwent uni- or bilateral orchiopexy, hydrocele or hernia repair and the testis was visible during operation. Results: The incidence of appendix testis was 76% (78 in 103) in descended and 24% (30 in 125) in undescended testes. Mean age at orchiopexy was lower in patients without appendix testis (39 months) compared to those patients who were found with appendix (61 months). Conclusion: The incidence of appendix testis was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in undescended testes, suggesting that the appendix testis might play a role in the process of testicular descent.

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