Introduction: We performed a prospective, randomized study to examine the efficacies of levofloxacin and doxazosin alone and as a combination therapy in patients with National Institutes of Health (NIH) category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Patients and Methods: Men with a NIH diagnosis of category III chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome and who had experienced pelvic pain for more than 3 months during the last 6 months were enrolled. All patients underwent treatment for 6 weeks. The patients were assessed at baseline and after 2 and 6 weeks by using the NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index. Eighty-one men (average age 40.1 years) were randomized to either the levofloxacin group (n = 26), the doxazosin group (n = 26), or the combination group (n = 29). Results: The average baseline NIH Chronic Prostatitis Symptom Index total scores were 22.6, 22.4, and 24.1, respectively. At 6 weeks, the total scores were 11.2 (response rate 50.3%), 17.7 (response rate 21.1%), and 13.1 (response rate 45.6%), respectively. The levofloxacin group showed a higher response rate than the doxazosin group, not at 2 weeks but at 6 weeks (p < 0.001). Conclusions: For a 6-week short-term treatment levofloxacin is more effective than doxazosin for chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. In addition, levofloxacin monotherapy was also more effective when compared with the combination therapy.

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