Introduction: The intensity of cystoscopic follow-up in the first year for patients with superficial bladder cancer has not been clearly defined. The cystoscopic follow-up of superficial bladder cancer accounts for a considerable workload for the urologist and is also an invasive procedure with high costs. We retrospectively reviewed our experience to determine any possible criteria which can lead to reduce the frequency of check cystoscopy. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was done on 427 patients with primary stage Ta and T1 bladder cancers treated between 1998 and 2005. The pattern of recurrence in the first year was assessed and recurrence rates calculated. Results: The recurrence rate was 22% at 3 months. The recurrence rates at 6 and 9 months were 8 and 13.6% respectively. The recurrence rate at 12 months was 9.4%. For tumors with no recurrence at 3 months, the recurrence rates at 6, 9 and 12 months were 6.6, 13.4 and 8.9% respectively. With respect to stages, there was a statistically significant difference in recurrence rate stages pTa and pT1 in the first and in the third control (p = 0.001, p = 0.003) respectively. According to the recurrence rate within the first year, the difference between G1 and G2 tumors was not statistically significant regardless of the stage (p > 0.05). Conclusions: Patients with initial stage Ta or T1 grade 1 and 2 bladder cancers and negative first cystoscopy have a significantly lower recurrence rate than those with recurrence at first cystoscopy. There is a reason to change follow-up routines but in our opinion only in patients with initial low-grade carcinoma. If the third-month cystoscopy is clear, it is appropriate to perform the first check cystoscopy 1 year after initial resection.

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