Background: In spite of many years of debate, the impact of varicocele on male infertility is still controversial since its pathogenetic role on the impairment of semen quality has never been fully demonstrated. Methods: In the present work, a series of 426 young adult males undergoing percutaneous treatment of varicocele were studied and semen parameters were evaluated at baseline and 12 months of follow-up. Results: A significant increase in sperm cell concentration and a decrease in immotile spermatozoa were found after varicocele repair, but we failed to detect any significant positive change in progressive motility as well in sperm morphology after treatment. Similar results were also obtained when semen parameters were correlated with the degree of varicocele. Conclusion: Since a spontaneous improvement in semen quality has been mathematically established as a model of regression toward the mean, we conclude that the correction of varicocele in young adults is not a major indication when semen alteration is the only clinical problem.

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