Fifty-five patients were followed up for their state of fertility at a time varying in length after testicular torsion. In addition to the spermiogram they were screened for sperm antibodies. Biopsy samples were collected from the contralateral (not contorted) testis in 34 patients at the time of torsion or immediately afterwards. Two to 8 years after torsion only 7 out of 55 patients had a normal spermiogram. Nineteen had an OAT syndrome, 10 had asthenospermia and 19 had teratospermia. Sperm antibodies occurred very rarely at the time of torsion (2/36) or at the time of a further checkup (2/36). Immunological damage to the noncontorted testis by the contorted one seems therefore rather unlikely. Histology of the contralateral testis, the samples of which were taken at the time of torsion (30) or up to 4 months later (4), showed pathological conditions in 30/34 cases (desquamation of the germinative epithelium, atrophy of the Leydig cells, malformation of spermatoblasts) and normal spermiogenesis in 4 cases only. Hence, a preexistent congenital testicular dysplasia must be assumed to be the cause of the observed disturbance of spermiogenesis and reduced fertility.

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