Purpose: To evaluate the association between dyslipidemia and nephrolithiasis risk in a Chinese population. Materials and Methods: Fasting plasma lipid profiles were measured in a case-control study of 540 nephrolithiasis cases and 656 kidney stone-free controls. Results: Triglycerides (TG) levels were significantly higher, but total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly lower in nephrolithiasis patients than those in the control group (each p < 0.05). Similar associations were found in both primary and recurrent nephrolithiasis patients except for TC levels. Significantly lower TC and LDL-C levels were found in all patients except those with uric acid stones. Patients with calcium oxalate (CaOx) and uric acid stones had significantly higher TG levels. Individuals with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL-cholesterolemia were associated with increased risk of nephrolithiasis (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.01–1.71 and OR 7.57, 95% CI 5.64–10.17, respectively). Conversely, those with hypercholesterolemia and high LDL-cholesterolemia were associated with decreased nephrolithiasis risk (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46–0.79 and OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42–0.90, respectively). The risk remained in patients with CaOx stones. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dyslipidemia was associated with nephrolithiasis risk in a Chinese population, especially in patients with CaOx stones.

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