Objective: In a significant proportion of patients with hematologic malignancies (5–30%) poor mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is observed. This compromises the application of effective and potentially curative high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) treatment. Case Report: Here we report the case of a 38-year-old female patient who was treated for recurrent follicular B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma grade III. In this patient, we failed twice to mobilize stem cells using chemotherapy followed by granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). Recently a new chemokine receptor CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 (plerixafor), was introduced which can be combined with G-CSF mobilization and has been reported to increase the number of harvested stem cells significantly. Using this protocol, we were able to harvest a HSC product. This product was transplanted 3 weeks after the harvest (after HDC), and the patient had an uncomplicated recovery of granulopoiesis (day 11 after transplantation of autologous HSC). Conclusion: Plerixafor has the potency to become an important tool in mobilizing HSC, especially in those patients in whom HSC cannot be mobilized by the combination of G-CSF and chemotherapy alone.

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