Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common clinical disorder caused by a variety of direct and indirect injuries to the lung, characterized by alveolar epithelial and endothelial injury resulting in damage to the pulmonary alveolar-capillary barrier. The cardinal clinical feature of ARDS, refractory arterial hypoxemia, is the result of protein-rich alveolar edema with impaired surfactant function, due to vascular leakage and vascular dysfunction with consequently impaired matching of ventilation to perfusion. Since its first description in 1967, considerable knowledge concerning the pathogenesis of ARDS has been obtained, however, a plethora of questions remain. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of ARDS has lead to the development of novel therapies, pharmacological strategies, and advances in mechanical ventilation. However, lung-protective ventilation is the only confirmed option in ARDS management improving survival, and few other therapies have translated into improved oxygenation or reduced ventilation time. But despite improvement in our understanding of the therapy and supportive care for patients with ARDS, mortality remains high. It is the purpose of this article to provide an overview of the definition, clinical features, and pathogenesis of ARDS, and to present and discuss therapeutic options currently available in order to effectively treat this severe disorder.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.