Die Substitution von Thrombo- und Granulozyten erfordert, infolge des raschen und hohen Umsatzes dieser Zellen im peripheren Blut, die Transfusion groβer Mengen dieser Zellen bei längerdauernder Marksuppression. Mit Zellseparatoren können 10 × 1011 Thrombozyten und mehr als 2 × 1010 Granulozyten von einem einzelnen Spender gewonnen werden, wodurch auch auf eine weitgehende Übereinstimmung im HLA-System geachtet werden kann. Die Indikationen für Thrombozytentransfusionen sind v. a. thrombopenische Blutungen, bei insuffizienter Produktion. Granulozytentransfusionen sollten nur bei geringer Granulozytopenie (unter 500 Granulozyten/μl) und bei durch konventionelle antibiotische Therapie nicht beherrschbaren Infektionen eingesetzt werden, falls eine Aussicht auf eine Knochenmarkserholung besteht.

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