Increased incidences of invasive group A streptococcal infections occurred in the Western Society in the 1980s, and the number of streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) cases continue to rise. Among the hypotheses entertained to explain the pathogenesis of STSS has been the concept that streptococcal superantigens (Sags), including streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins (SPEs), can trigger potent inflammatory responses and release of cytokines of TH 1 type (TNF-oc, IL-1 IFN-γ and TNF-β). These may mediate tissue damage, organ failure, and shock.Pooled human immune globulin G (IgG) preparations for intravenous administration (ivIgG) have been used in many inflammatory conditions due to their immunomodulatory potential. The effector mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study dealt with the effects of ivIgG on cytokine production in vitro. Cytokine synthesis was identified at the single-cell level using cytokine-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) and indirect immunocytochemical techniques. The super-antigen streptococcal Pyrogenic exotoxin-A (SPE-A) induced vigorous cell activation and extensive cytokine synthesis. ivIgG was added either at the beginning or 24 h after the initiation of cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) in order to elucidate the importance of direct toxin neutralization. Addition of IVlg (6 mg/ml) from the beginning of cultures induced a strong reduction of blast transformation and an almost complete inhibition of lymphokine production, in particular of IFN-γ and TNF-β. Supplementation of ivIgG 24 h after initiation of cultures also led to a significant decrease

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.