Introduction: The aim of this retrospective study was to verify the association between the time of diagnosis and initial and final sex assignment in a disorder of sex development (DSD) diagnostic group, looking at the age of the patients at first visit, severity of genital ambiguity, and karyotype. Methods: The time of diagnosis was divided into 3 groups: before 2000, between 2000 and 2006, and after 2006. Data were categorized and analyzed using the χ2 test with α < 0.05. Results: A total of 567 cases were analyzed; 307 were assigned as male, 135 as female, and 125 remained undefined at the first visit. After clinical and laboratory evaluations, 369 patients were male and 198 were female. Neither initial nor final sex assignment proportions changed over time, but there were significant differences in the age at first visit, with referral occurring at an earlier age, as well as more severe genital ambiguity presentations, a higher proportion of sex chromosome aberrations, and a lower frequency of 46,XX DSD cases. This occurred both in the sample as a whole (567 cases) and in the group of 125 patients without definitive sex assignment at the first visit. The results were similar when only 284 patients aged less than 12 months at the first visit were analyzed. Discussion/Conclusion: Over time, there were no changes in sex assignment proportions, but there was an increased awareness of the need for early referral and changes in clinical, cytogenetic, and diagnostic aspects.

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