Around 1.4-3.8% of boys in the Western world are operated because of cryptorchidism. This means that orchidopexy remains one of the most common surgical procedures performed in boys. As a consequence, several consensus reports, guidelines, and reviews dealing with the management of cryptorchidism have been published recently. Based on our research and 30 years' experience with the management of cryptorchidism, the intention of the present publication is to advise on the surgical management and comment on the expected outcome, especially with focus on the controversies related to guidelines and reviews. Except for late referral and waiting lists, which may be practical problems, there is no reason to postpone orchidopexy for nonsyndromic congenital cryptorchid testes beyond 6 months. There is good evidence that such strategy improves the fertility potential and decreases the risk of testicular cancer. In cases with genuine gonadotropin insufficiency, early surgical correction is not enough and adjuvant LH-RH treatment should be implemented to improve the fertility potential. Cryopreservation may be an option in case of treatment failure of adjuvant LH-RH. A prerequisite for such management includes serum hormone assessment and evaluation of testicular biopsies at orchidopexy. Ascended testes contribute to 20-60% of operative cases and should be treated when diagnosed.

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