Introduction: The role of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells-derived exosomes (BMSCs-exo) in skin photoaging was explored in human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). The underlying mechanism was further explored. Methods: HDFs were exposed to UVB irradiation to establish the cell photodamage models. The cell viability and levels of oxidative stress-related factors were tested. ELISA was done to detect TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β concentrations. Western blot was applied for protein examination. Results: UVB treatment led to the inhibition of cell viability. But after BMSCs-exo addition, the inhibitory effect was returned in a dose manner. UVB exposure contributed to the increase of reactive oxygen species and LDH and the downregulation of superoxide dismutase. In addition, excessive secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β was also detected in cells exposed to UVB. However, BMSCs-exo addition eliminated the effects of UVB on oxidative stress and inflammation in HDFs. BMSCs-exo inhibited matrix metalloproteinases MMP-1 and MMP-3 expression but promoted collagen I expression. UVB radiation activated the MAPK/AP-1 signaling, manifested as the increase of p-p38, c-Jun, and c-Fos protein levels, which were reversed by BMSCs-exo. As a p38 agonist, anisomycin counteracted the effect of BMSCs-exo on HDF’s viability, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Conclusion: BMSCs-exo protected HDFs against UVB-induced inhibition of cell viability and the activation of cell oxidative stress and inflammation, which might be related to the inhibition of the MAPK/AP-1 signaling pathway.