I want to thank Mike Roberts for arranging this issue of the journal and Annette Bunge and Richard Guy for reviewing this paper. This is, first, a history of my introduction to the field of skin permeability, and then an attempt to recall (with the inaccuracies that implies) the highlights of my research (1960-1975) on skin permeation, and finally a reflection by an old-timer on more recent concepts.

1.
Stein WD: The Movement of Molecules across Cell Membranes. New York, Academic Press, 1967, vol 6: Theoretical and Experimental Biology.
2.
Crank J: The Mathematics of Diffusion, ed 2. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1975.
3.
Crank J, Park, GS: Diffusion on Polymers. London, Academic Press, 1968.
4.
Davson H, Danielli JF: The Permeability of Natural Membranes. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1952.
5.
Kedem O, Katchaslsky A: A physical interpretation of the phenomenological coefficients of membrane permeability. J Gen Physiol 1961;45:143-179.
6.
Blank IH: Cutaneous barriers. J Invest Dermatol 1965;45:249-256.
7.
Jaeger JC: Conduction of heat in composite slabs. Q Appl Maths 1950;8:187.
8.
Ash R, Barrer RM, Palmer DG: Diffusion in multiple laminates. Br J Appl Phys 1965;16:873-884.
9.
Yotsuyanagi T, Higuchi WL: A two phase model for the transport of steroids across the fully hydrated stratum corneum. J Pharm Pharmacol 1972;24:934-941.
10.
Brody I: The ultra-structure of the tonofibrils in the keratinization process of the normal human epidermis. J Ultrastruct Res 1960;4:264-297.
11.
Swanbeck G: On the keratin fibrils of the skin. An X-ray small angle study of the horny layer. J Ultrastruct Res 1959;3:51-57.
12.
Wheatly VR: The nature, origin and possible functions of the cutaneous lipids. Proc Sci Sect Toilet Goods Assoc 1963;39:25-28.
13.
Breathnach AS, Goodman T, Stolinski C, Gross M: Freeze fracture replication of cells of stratum corneum of human epidermis. J Anat 1973;114:65-81.
14.
Lars N, Amoudiz AA: Stratum corneum keratin structure, function, and formation: the cubic rod-packing and membrane templating model. J Invest Dermatol 2004;123:715-732.
15.
Glasstone S, Laidler KJ, Eyring H: The Theory of Rate Processes, ed 1, impression 5. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1941.
16.
Cohen MH, Turnbull D: Molecular transport in liquids and gases. J Chem Phys 1959;31:1164-1169.
17.
Kasting GB, Smith RL, Cooper EB: Effect of lipid solubility and molecular size on percutaneous absorption; in Shroot B, Schaefer H (eds): Skin Pharmacokinetics. Basel, Karger, 1987, pp 138-153.
18.
Scheuplein RJ: Permeability of the Skin. Handbook of Physiology, Reactions to Environmental Agents. Baltimore, Waverly Press Inc., 1975, chapt 19, pp 299-322.
19.
Alexander P, Hudson RF: Sorption and Swelling, Wool - Its Chemistry and Physics. ed 2 by C. Earland, New York, Chapman & Hall, 1963, p 114.
20.
Scheuplein RJ: Bound water in keratin membranes, measured by a microbalance technique. Nature 1967;214:456-458.
21.
Scheuplein RJ: Analysis of permeability data for the case of parallel diffusion pathways. Biophys J 1996;6:1-17.
22.
Walkely K: Bound water in stratum corneum measured by differential scanning calorimetry. J Invest Dermatol 1972;59:225-227.
23.
Scheuplein RJ, Blank IH: Permeability of the skin. Physiol Rev 1971;51:702-747.
24.
Blank IH, Scheuplein RJ, Macfarlane DJ: Mechanism of percutaneous absorption. III. The effect of temperature on the transport of non-electrolytes across the skin. J Invest Dermatol 1967;49:582-589.
25.
Scheuplein RJ, Ross L: Effects of surfactants and solvents on the permeability of the epidermis. J Soc Cosmet Chem 1970;21:853-873.
26.
Rothman S: Percutaneous absorption; in Rothman S (ed): Physiology and Biochemistry of the Skin. Chicago, Chicago University Press, 1954.
27.
Elias PM, Friend DC: The permeability barrier in mammalian epidermis. J Cell Biol 1975;65:180-191.
28.
Elias PM, Cooper ER, Korc A, Brown BE: Percutaneous transport in relation to stratum corneum structure and lipid composition. J Invest Dermatol 1981;76:297-301.
29.
Abraham W, Downing DT: Preparation of model membranes for skin permeability studies using stratum corneum lipids. J Invest Dermatol 1989;93:809-813.
30.
Johnson ME, Blankschtein D, Langer R: Evaluation of solute permeation through the stratum corneum: lateral bilayer diffusion as the primary transport mechanism. J Pharm Sci 1997;86:1162-1172.
31.
Michaels AS, Chandrasekaran AK, Shaw JE: Drug permeation through human skin: theory and in vitro experimental measurement. AIChE J 1975;21:985-996.
32.
Barrer RM: Diffusion and permeation in heterogeneous media; in Crank J, Park GS (eds): Diffusion in Polymers. London, Academic Press, 1968, chapt 6.
33.
Heisig M, Lieckfeldt R, Wittum G, Mazurkevich G, Lee G: Non-steady state descriptions of drug permeation through stratum corneum. I. The biphasic brick-and-mortar model. Pharm Res 1996;13:421-426.
34.
Lieckfeldt R, Lee G: Measuring the diffusional path length and area within membranes of excised stratum corneum. J Pharm Pharmacol 1995;47:26-29.
35.
Edwards DA, Langer R: A linear theory of transdermal transport phenomena. J Pharm Sci 1994;83:1315-1334.
36.
Wang TF, Kasting GB, Nitsche JM: A multiphase microscopic diffusion model for stratum corneum permeability. I. Formulation, solution and illustrative results for representative compounds. J Pharm Sci 2005;95:620-648.
37.
Wang TF, Kasting GB, Nitsche JM: A multiphase microscopic diffusion model for stratum corneum permeability II. Estimation of physicochemical parameters, and application to a large permeability database. J Pharm Sci 2007;96:3024-3051.
38.
Nitsche JM, Wang TF, Kasting GB: A two-phase analysis of solute partitioning into the stratum corneum. J Pharm Sci 2006;95:649-66.
39.
Homalle A: Expériences physiologiques sur l'absorption par le tégument externe chez l'homme dans le bain. Union Méd 1853;7:462-463.
40.
Fleischer R: Untersuchungen über das Resorptionsvermögen der menschlichen Haut; Habilitationsschrift, Erlangen, 1877.
41.
Schwenkenbecker A: Studies on skin absorption. Arch Anat Physiol 1904;28:121.
42.
Smith HW, Clawes HA, Marshall EK: Mustard gas. IV. The mechanisms of absorption by the skin. J Pharmacol 1919;13:1-30.
43.
Rein H: Experimentelle Studie über Elektroendosmose an überlebender menschlicher Haut. Z Biol 1924;81:125-140.
44.
Mackee GM, Sulzberger MB, Herrmann F, Baer RL: Histologic studies on percutaneous penetration with special reference to the effect of vehicles. J Invest Dermatol 1945;6:43-61.
45.
Mali JW: The transport of water through the human epidermis. J Invest Dermatol 1956;27:451-469.
46.
Monash S: Location of the superficial epithelial barrier to skin penetration. J Invest Dermatol 1957;29: 367-376.
47.
Szakall A: Experimentelle Daten zur Klärung der Funktion der Wasserbarriere in der Epidermis des lebenden Menschen. Berufsdermatosen 1958;6:171.
48.
Blank H: Percutaneous absorption: methods of study and factors which influence absorption. J Occup Med 1960;2:6-11.
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