Background/Aim: Staphylococcusaureus remains a common cause of burn wound infection. Different studies have shown that the entrapment of plant-derived material such as epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) in liposomes could increase their anti-S. aureus activity. The objectives of this study were to prepare EGCG-loaded nanoliposomes with variable surface charges and to evaluate their efficacy in vitro and in vivo against methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Study Design/Methods: EGCG-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, negative and neutral surface charges were prepared by extrusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of EGCG nanoliposomal forms against MRSA were determined by broth dilution method. The killing rates of the free and nanoliposomal forms of EGCG were analyzed. Ultimately, the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of the nanoliposomes in burned mouse skin infected by MRSA was investigated. Results: The MICs of the free, cationic, neutral and anionic nanoliposomal forms of EGCG against MRSA were 128, 16, 32 and 256 mg/l, respectively. The killing rates of the EGCG-loaded cationic nanoliposomes were higher than those of the other formulations. Treatment with the EGCG-loaded nanoliposomes with positive, neutral and negative surface charges resulted in almost 100, 70 and 30% survival rates, respectively. Conclusion: The data suggested that the cationic EGCG-loaded nanoliposomes would be a good choice for the treatment of MRSA infections due to its high effectiveness.

1.
Dai T, Huang YY, Sharma SK, Hashmi JT, Kurup DB, Hamblin MR: Topical antimicrobials for burn wound infections. Recent Pat Antiinfect Drug Discov 2010;5:124–151.
2.
Schaller M, Laude J, Bodewaldt H, Hamm G, Korting HC: Toxicity and antimicrobial activity of a hydrocolloid dressing containing silver particles in an ex vivo model of cutaneous infection. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2004;17:31–36.
3.
Durupt F, Mayor L, Bes M, Reverdy ME, Vandenesch F, Thomas L, Etienne J: Prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus toxins and nasal carriage in furuncles and impetigo. Br J Dermatol 2007;157:1161–1167.
4.
Jeon HY, Kim JK, Kim WG, Lee SJ: Effects of oral epigallocatechin gallate supplementation on the minimal erythema dose and UV-induced skin damage. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009;22:137–141.
5.
Grove KA, Lambert JD: Laboratory, epidemiological, and human intervention studies show that tea (Camellia sinensis) may be useful in the prevention of obesity. J Nutr 2010;140:446–453.
6.
Zhao WH, Hu ZQ, Hara Y, Shimamura T: Inhibition of penicillinase by epigallocatechin gallate resulting in restoration of antibacterial activity of penicillin against penicillinase-producing Staphylococcusaureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2002;46:2266–2268.
7.
Zhao WH, Hu ZQ, Okubo S, Hara Y, Shimamura T: Mechanism of synergy between epigallocatechin gallate and β-lactams against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2001;45:1737–1742.
8.
Gaffari MA, Dabbagh MA, Gharib A: Human erythrocyte superoxide dismutase encapsulated in positively charged liposomes. Iranian J Pharm Sci 2005;1:153–160.
9.
Mirzaee M, Owlia P, Mehrabi MR, Gharib A: In vitro bactericidal activity of encapsulated amikacin in liposome. Iranian J Pathol 2009;4:151–156.
10.
Sarbolouki MN, Maghdooni Bagheri P, Saneei V: The influence of lipid composition and beta-carotene on lipid peroxidation in liposomes. Daru J Pharm Sci 2005;13:148–154.
11.
Gharib A, Faezizadeh Z, Mohammad Asghari H: Preparation and antifungal activity of spray-dried amphotericin B-loaded nanospheres. Daru J Pham Sci 2011;19:351–355.
12.
Zhong Z, Wan Y, Han J, Shi S, Zhang Z, Sun X: Improvement of adenoviral vector-mediated gene transfer to airway epithelia by folate-modified anionic liposomes. Int J Nanomedicine 2011;6:1083–1093.
13.
Roychoudhury J, Sinha R, Ali N: Therapy with sodium stibogluconate in stearylamine-bearing liposomes confers cure against SSG-resistant Leishmania donovani in BALB/c mice. PLoS One 2011;6:e17376.
14.
Fang JY, Hwang TL, Huang YL, Fang CL: Enhancement of the transdermal delivery of catechins by liposomes incorporating anionic surfactants and ethanol. Int J Pharm 2006;310:131–138.
15.
Youfang J, Fenghung C, Longhwang T, Linghuang Y: Physicochemical characteristics and in vivo deposition of liposome-encapsulated tea catechins by topical and intratumor administrations. J Drug Targ 2005;13:19–27.
16.
Zhang L, Lu CT, Li WF, Cheng JG, Tian XQ, Zhao YZ, Li X, Lv HF, Li XK: Physical characterization and cellular uptake of propylene glycol liposomes in vitro. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2012;38:365–371.
17.
Kong KW, Khoo HE, K. Prasad N, Ismail A, Tan CP, Nor Fadilah Rajab NF: Revealing the power of the natural red pigment lycopene. Molecules 2010;15:959–987.
18.
Fang JY, Lee WR, Shen SC, Huang YL: Effect of liposome encapsulation of tea catechins on their accumulation in basal cell carcinomas. J Dermatol Sci 2006;42:101–109.
19.
Pallotta RC, Ribeiro MS, de Lima Machado ME: Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration of four medicaments used as intracanal medication. Aust Endod J 2007;33:107–111.
20.
Wayne PA, National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards: Methods for dilution antimicrobial susceptibility tests for bacteria that grow aerobically, approved standard, ed 6. National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards, 2003, NCCLS document M7-A6.
21.
Shrivastava SM, Saurabh S, Rai D, Dwivedi VK, Chaudhary M: In vitro microbial efficacy of Sulbactomax: a novel fixed dose combination of ceftriaxone sulbactam and ceftriaxone alone. Cur Drug Ther 2009;4:73–77.
22.
Dale RK, Schnell G, Wong JP: Therapeutic efficacy of ‘nubiotics’ against burn wound infection by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2004;48:2918–2923.
23.
Committee on the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Laboratory Animal Resources, Commission on Life Sciences National Research Council: Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington, National Academy Press, 1996.
24.
Shaffa MW, Dayem SA, Elshemy WM: In vitro antibacterial activity of liposomal cephalexin against Staphylococcusaureus. Romanian J Biophys 2008;18:293–300.
25.
Muqbil I, Masood A, Sarkar FH, Mohammad RM, Azmi AS: Progress in nanotechnology-based approaches to enhance the potential of chemopreventive agents. Cancers 2011;3:428–445.
26.
Nagle DG, Ferreira D, Zhou YD: Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG): chemical and biomedical perspectives. Phytochemistry 2006;67:1849–1855.
27.
Detoni CB, Cabral-Albuquerque EC, Hohlemweger SV, Sampaio C, Barros TF, Velozo EF: Essential oil from Zanthoxylum tingoassuiba loaded into multilamellar liposomes useful as antimicrobial agents. J Microencapsul 2009;26:684–691.
28.
Odonkor ST, Addo KK: Bacteria resistance to antibiotics: recent trends and challenges. Int J Biol Med Res 2011;2:1204–1210.
29.
Wright GD: Bacterial resistance to antibiotics: enzymatic degradation and modification. Adv Drug Deliv Rev 2005;57:1451–1470.
30.
Alanis AJ: Resistance to antibiotics: are we in the post-antibiotic era? Arch Med Res 2005;36:697–705.
31.
Abreu AC, McBain AJ, Simões M: Plants as sources of new antimicrobials and resistance-modifying agents. Nat Prod Rep 2012;29:1007–1021.
32.
Gibbons S: Plants as a source of bacterial resistance modulators and anti-infective agents. Phytochem Rev 2005;4:63–78.
33.
Campanhã MT, Mamizuka EM, Carmona-Ribeiro AM: Interactions between cationic liposomes and bacteria: the physical chemistry of the bactericidal action. J Lipid Res 1999;40:1495–1500.
34.
Mugabe C, Halwani M, Azghani AO, Lafrenie RM, Omri A: Mechanism of enhanced activity of liposome-entrapped aminoglycosides against resistant strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2006;50:2016–2022.
35.
Drulis-Kawa Z, Dorotkiewicz-Jach A, Gubernator J, Gula G, Bocer T, Doroszkiewicz W: The interaction between Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells and cationic PC:Chol: DOTAP liposomal vesicles versus outer-membrane structure and envelope properties of bacterial cell. Int J Pharm 2009;367:211–219.
36.
Huang CM, Chen CH, Pornpattananangkul D, Zhang L, Chan M, Hsieh MF, Zhang L: Eradication of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus by liposomal oleic acids. Biomaterials 2011;32:214–221.
37.
Klein DG, Fritsh DE, Amin SG: Wound infection following trauma and burn injuries. Crit Care Nursing N Am 1995;7:627–642.
38.
Pruitt BA, McManus AT, Kim SH, Goodwin CW: Burn wound infections: current status. World J Surg 1998;22:135–145.
39.
Wurtz R, Karajovic E, Dacumos E, Hanumandass M: Nosocomial infections in a burn intensive care unit. Burns 1995;21:180–184.
40.
Nunes PS, Albuquerque RL Jr, Cavalcante DR, Dantas MD, Cardoso JC, Bezerra MS, Souza JC, Serafini MR, Quitans LJ Jr, Bonjardim LR, Araújo AA: Collagen-based films containing liposome-loaded usnic acid as dressing for dermal burn healing. J Biomed Biotechnol 2011;2011:761593.
41.
Karodi R, Jadhav M, Rub R, Bafna A: Evaluation of the wound healing activity of a crude extract of Rubia cordifolia L. (Indian madder) in mice. Int J Appl Res Nat Prod 2009;2:12–18.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.