In this study the effect of 2 penetration modifiers, dimethyl isosorbide (DMI) and diethylene glycol monoethyl ether (DGME) on the skin delivery of hydroquinone (HQ), salicylic acid (SA) and octadecenedioic acid (DIOIC) was investigated. Ten percent DMI and DGME were separately formulated into oil-in-water emulsions containing 1.8% HQ, SA and DIOIC, respectively. Skin delivery and the flux across split-thickness human skin of the active ingredients were determined using Franz diffusion cells. An emulsion with 10% water incorporated instead of the water-soluble penetration modifiers served as a control. The study showed that neither 10% DMI nor 10% DGME significantly enhanced the skin permeation of the various lipophilic active ingredients or the uptake into the skin. It was hypothesized that the addition of the penetration modifiers to the emulsions not only enhanced the solubility of the various active ingredients in the skin but also in the formulation, resulting in a reduced thermodynamic activity and hence a weaker driving force for penetration. Therefore, the effect of DMI and DGME on the solubility of the active ingredients in the skin was counteracted by a simultaneous reduction in the thermodynamic activity in the formulation.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.