Background: Optics can be used for guidance in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. The aim was to use laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to investigate the intraoperative optical trajectory along the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) and zona incerta (Zi) regions in patients with essential tremor during asleep DBS surgery, and whether the Zi region could be identified. Methods: A forward-looking LDF guide was used for creation of the trajectory for the DBS lead, and the microcirculation and tissue greyness, i.e., total light intensity (TLI) was measured along 13 trajectories. TLI trajectories and the number of high-perfusion spots were investigated at 0.5-mm resolution in the last 25 mm from the targets. Results: All implantations were done without complications and with significant improvement of tremor (p < 0.01). Out of 798 measurements, 12 tissue spots showed high blood flow. The blood flow was significantly higher in VIM than in Zi (p < 0.001). The normalized mean TLI curve showed a significant (p < 0.001) lower TLI in the VIM region than in the Zi region. Conclusion: Zi DBS performed asleep appears to be safe and effective. LDF monitoring provides direct in vivomeasurement of the microvascular blood flow in front of the probe, which can help reduce the risk of hemorrhage. LDF can differentiate between the grey substance in the thalamus and the transmission border entering the posterior subthalamic area where the tissue consists of more white matter tracts.