Background: Optics can be used for guidance in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. The aim was to use laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) to investigate the intraoperative optical trajectory along the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM) and zona incerta (Zi) regions in patients with essential tremor during asleep DBS surgery, and whether the Zi region could be identified. Methods: A forward-looking LDF guide was used for creation of the trajectory for the DBS lead, and the microcirculation and tissue greyness, i.e., total light intensity (TLI) was measured along 13 trajectories. TLI trajectories and the number of high-perfusion spots were investigated at 0.5-mm resolution in the last 25 mm from the targets. Results: All implantations were done without complications and with significant improvement of tremor (p < 0.01). Out of 798 measurements, 12 tissue spots showed high blood flow. The blood flow was significantly higher in VIM than in Zi (p < 0.001). The normalized mean TLI curve showed a significant (p < 0.001) lower TLI in the VIM region than in the Zi region. Conclusion: Zi DBS performed asleep appears to be safe and effective. LDF monitoring provides direct in vivomeasurement of the microvascular blood flow in front of the probe, which can help reduce the risk of hemorrhage. LDF can differentiate between the grey substance in the thalamus and the transmission border entering the posterior subthalamic area where the tissue consists of more white matter tracts.

Open Access License / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.