Introduction: Magnetic resonance guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) thalamotomy is an effective treatment for drug-resistant tremor. The most frequent side effects are ataxia, gait disturbance, paresthesias, dysgeusia, and hemiparesis. Here, we report the first case of thalamic hand dystonia rapidly occurring after MRgFUS thalamotomy of the ventral intermediate nucleus (V.im). Case Presentation: MRgFUS thalamotomy was performed in a 60-year-old left-handed patient for his disabling medically refractory essential tremor. The intervention resulted in a marked reduction of his action tremor. However, the patient developed an unvoluntary abnormal posture in his left hand a few days after the procedure with difficulty holding a cigarette between his fingers. Brain MRI revealed the expected MRgFUS lesion within the right V.im as well as an extension of the lesion anteriorly to the V.im in the ventro-oralis nucleus. Tractography showed that the lesion disrupted the dentato-rubro-thalamic tract as expected with a lesion suppressing tremor. However, the lesion also was interrupted fibers connecting to the superior frontal and pre-central cortices (primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, and supplementary area). We hypothesized that the interventional MRgFUS thalamotomy was slightly off target, which induced a dysfunction within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical network and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical pathway reaching a sufficient threshold of basal ganglia/cerebellum circuitry interference to induce dystonia. Conclusion: This rare side effect emphasizes the risk of imbalance within the dystonia network (i.e., basal ganglia-cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit) secondary to V.im thalamotomy.

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