Background: Frame-based stereotactic procedures are still the gold standard in neurosurgery. However, there is an increasing interest in robot-assisted technologies. Introducing these increasingly complex tools in the clinical setting raises the question about the time efficiency of the system and the essential learning curve of the surgeon. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled a consecutive series of patients undergoing a robot-assisted procedure after first system installation at one institution. All procedures were performed by the same neurosurgeon to capture the learning curve. The objective read-out were the surgical procedure time (SPT), the skin-to-skin time, and the intraoperative registration time (IRT) after laser surface registration (LSR), bone fiducial registration (BFR), and skin fiducial registration (SFR), as well as the quality of the registration (as measured by the fiducial registration error [FRE]). The time measures were compared to those for a patient group undergoing classic frame-based stereotaxy. Results: In the first 7 months, we performed 31 robot-assisted surgeries (26 biopsies, 3 stereotactic electroencephalography [SEEG] implantations, and 2 endoscopic procedures). The SPT was depending on the actual type of surgery (biopsies: 85.0 ± 36.1 min; SEEG: 154.9 ± 75.9 min; endoscopy: 105.5 ± 1.1 min; p = 0.036). For the robot-assisted biopsies, there was a significant reduction in SPT within the evaluation period, reaching the level of frame-based surgeries (58.1 ± 17.9 min; p < 0.001). The IRT was depending on the applied registration method (LSR: 16.7 ± 2.3 min; BFR: 3.5 ± 1.1 min; SFR: 3.5 ± 1.6 min; p < 0.001). In contrast to BFR and SFR, there was a significant reduction in LSR time during that period (p = 0.038). The FRE differed between the applied registration methods (LSR: 0.60 ± 0.17 mm; BFR: 0.42 ± 0.15 mm; SFR: 2.17 ± 0.78 mm; p < 0.001). There was a significant improvement in LSR quality during the evaluation period (p = 0.035). Conclusion: Introducing stereotactic, robot-assisted surgery in an established clinical setting initially necessitates a prolonged intraoperative preparation time. However, there is a steep learning curve during the first cases, reaching the time level of classic frame-based stereotaxy. Thus, a stereotactic robot can be integrated into daily routine within a decent period of time, thereby expanding the neurosurgeons’ armamentarium, especially for procedures with multiple trajectories.

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