Background: Drug addiction is one of the most prevalent and costly health problems worldwide. Over the past decade, deep brain stimulation (DBS) has increasingly been used for the treatment of drug addiction. Simultaneous DBS of nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the anterior limb of the internal capsule (ALIC) has successfully been used for preventing heroin relapse. However, the excessive energy consumption speeds up battery depletion, which puts a burden on patients. By comparison, anterior capsulotomy is usually more convenient for patients and its clinical efficacy is similar to that of ALIC DBS. Accordingly, NAc DBS combined with anterior capsulotomy may also be an effective, yet more convenient, intervention for drug addiction and relapse prevention. Case Description: The patient was a 28-year-old man with a polysubstance use disorder (bucinnazine, morphine, and hypnotics) for 13 years. After bilateral NAc DBS combined with bilateral anterior capsulotomy, his craving for the three drugs decreased markedly, and he remained abstinent throughout the follow-up period of approximately 1-year. Moreover, psychiatric and neuropsychological assessments showed significant improvements in depression, anxiety, sleep, quality of life, and most aspects of cognitive functioning. His overall health status was also improved. Conclusions: NAc DBS combined with anterior capsulotomy is a promising surgical treatment for drug addiction.

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