Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a well-established therapy for chronic pain syndromes, with growing applicability to other conditions. Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a widespread, chronic movement disorder managed primarily and incompletely by medication, and its etiology can be classified as idiopathic or secondary. Methods: Three patients underwent SCS implantation for chronic back and/or leg pain with concomitant targeting of RLS: (1) a 34-year-old man with sporadic RLS symptoms that strongly intensified after military-related spinal fractures, (2) a 54-year-old man with RLS likely secondary to meralgia paresthetica, and (3) a 42-year-old man with low back and right lower extremity pain after a military motor vehicle accident. Results: Continuing through 40-month, 2-month, and 28-month follow-ups, respectively, the patients experienced exemplary relief of their RLS symptoms. Notably in the case of patient 1, this benefit appears separate from his pain relief, as during the 5-month period directly after surgery but before adjusted targeting, he only experienced pain alleviation. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of using SCS as a potentially long-lasting, safe, and highly effective therapy for RLS of mixed etiology. Additionally, 2 patients with RLS possibly secondary to chronic pain also benefited from the therapy. This success may be due to increased inhibition from hypothalamic cells controlling dopaminergic input to the spine.

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