Objective: We tested the application accuracy of an electromagnetic field-based image guidance system to compare it to traditional optically tracked systems. Methods: A plastic skull phantom was fitted with fiducial markers rigidly attached via self-drilling bone screws. Volumetric CT scan was obtained to simulate the clinical condition. A metal disc marked in 1-mm increments was placed at the expected target point. Following registration and alignment of a trajectory guide, radial and depth localization errors were measured after both freehand and stabilized approaches on both the right and left sides. Statistical analyses of the localization errors were performed. Results: Total target localization error ranged from 0.71 to 3.51 mm with a mean ± SEM of 2.13 ± 0.11 mm. The radial error averaged 0.98 ± 0.11 mm, depth error 1.74 ± 0.13 mm. The freehand procedures produced a statistically greater radial, depth and total error than the fixed procedures. Conclusions: Accuracy of image-guided localization using an electromagnetic field guidance system is similar to that reported for optically guided systems.

This content is only available via PDF.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.