A strategy to update preoperative imaging for image-guided surgery using readily available intraoperative information has been developed and implemented. A patient-specific three-dimensional finite element model of the brain is generated from preoperative MRI and used to simulate deformation resulting from multiple surgical processes. Intraoperatively obtained sparse imaging data, such as from digital cameras or ultrasonography, is then used to prescribe the displacement of selected points within the model. Interpolation to the resolution of preoperative imaging may then be performed based upon the model. The algorithms for generation of the finite element model and for its subsequent deformation have been successfully validated using a pig brain model, and preliminary clinical application in the operating room has demonstrated feasibility.

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