Background: The development of a bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. We have developed a minimally invasive method of bronchoscopic BPF closure using Amplatzer devices (AD) and Amplatzer vascular plugs (AVP), with excellent short-term results. Objectives: The aim of the present report was to explore the long-term outcome of patients treated by Amplatzer occluders and the durability of this novel modality of BPF treatment. Methods: A total of 31 central BPF in 31 patients (mean age 66.8 years, range 19-91) were sealed under moderate sedation bronchoscopically by either AD (n = 19) or AVP (n = 12). The average follow-up period was 17.6 months (range 1-68 months). Results: The main etiology for BPF was surgery (n = 24), pneumonectomy (n = 14) or lobectomy/segmentectomy (n = 10). The underlying disease was either primary (n = 19) or metastatic (n = 2) lung cancer. The immediate success rate was 96% as symptoms related to BPF disappeared in 30 of the 31 patients. Short-term (<30 days) mortality was 13% (4 patients). At follow-up, 14 patients (45%) are still alive. Out of 12 patients with late mortality, in 5 patients (41%) the death was directly related to cancer relapse, and no patient died due to BPF recurrence. Conclusion: Endobronchial closure of BPF using both types of Amplatzer occluders (AD and AVP) is a minimally invasive effective modality of treatment with high safety profile and satisfactory long-term outcome considering the poor prognosis in this particular group of patients.

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