We investigated the effects of tobacco smoke exposure on the production of tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) by alveolar macrophages (AM) in mice (C57BL/6). The results obtained are as follows: (1) In vivo tobacco smoke exposure caused a significant decrease in the production of TNFα by AM with the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; control group: 19.32 ± 5.52 U/ml, smoked group: 4.28 ± 0.98 U/ml; p < 0.05). (2) In vitro exposure of AM to tobacco smoke extracts (water-soluble extracts) also caused a decrease in the production of TNFα up to 93% of control with stimulation of LPS (p < 0.05) without any decrease in cellular viability. We concluded that the production of TNFα by AM was impaired by smoking via direct action of the factors present in tobacco smoke.

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