Background: Pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC) is a prognostic parameter in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) reflecting the elasticity of the pulmonary vessels. Objectives: The objective of this post hoc analysis of a prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to assess the effect of exercise training on PAC and stroke volume (SV) in patients with PAH and persistent/inoperable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Method: From the previous RCT, 43 out of 87 patients with severe PAH (n = 29) and CTEPH (n = 14) had complete haemodynamic examinations at baseline and after 15 weeks by right heart catheterization and were analysed (53% female, 79% World Health Organization functional class III/IV, 58% combination therapy, 42% on supplemental oxygen therapy, training group n = 24, and control group n = 19). Medication remained unchanged for all patients. Results: Low-dose exercise training at 4–7 days/week significantly improved PAC (training group 0.33 ± 0.65 mL/mm Hg vs. control group −0.06 ± 1.10 mL/mm Hg; mean difference 0.39 mL/mm Hg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15–0.94 mL/mm Hg; p = 0.004) and SV (training group 9.9 ± 13.4 mL/min vs. control group −4.2 ± 11.0 mL/min; mean difference 14.2 mL, 95% CI 6.5–21.8 mL; p < 0.001) in the training versus control group. Furthermore, exercise training significantly improved cardiac output and pulmonary vascular resistance at rest, peak oxygen consumption, and oxygen pulse. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that supervised exercise training may improve right ventricular function and PAC at the same time. Further prospective studies are needed to evaluate these findings.

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