Background: Cardiac output determination is essential in precapillary pulmonary hypertension. While direct Fick is the gold standard, thermodilution is commonly used as the reference method. Moving to noninvasive methods would be highly beneficial for patients, avoiding repetitive invasive assessments. This systematic review followed 3 objectives: (1) assessing the validity of indirect Fick and thermodilution in precapillary pulmonary hypertension, (2) assessing the interchangeability of noninvasive cardiac output measurement methods against reference methods in precapillary pulmonary hypertension, and (3) detecting methodological heterogeneity in the included studies. Methods: We systematically reviewed the literature using medical databases and following PRISMA guidelines. We included articles comparing an invasive or noninvasive cardiac output measurement method with thermodilution or direct Fick in precapillary pulmonary hypertension patients. Cutoffs of limits of agreement and percentage error derived from the Bland and Altman graph were used to accept interchangeability. To study methodological heterogeneity, we extracted 9 quality criteria from all studies. Results: Eleven studies were included. None reached the suggested interchangeability criteria. The median number of the 9 assessed quality criteria was 2 with interquartile range (0–4). Conclusions: Further studies evaluating the reliability of thermodilution and the consequences of its use in precapillary pulmonary hypertension patients are necessary. No evidence supports the use of indirect Fick in precapillary pulmonary hypertension. The studied noninvasive methods could not be considered interchangeable with invasive methods. A robust methodology should be used to draw sensible conclusions.

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