Introduction: According to current concepts of developmental tasks, both the use of digital media and the consumption of psychotropic substances are age-typical challenges for adolescents. The majority overcomes these developmental tasks, but a substantial proportion of youth develops problematic usage patterns (e.g., of video games) or problematic consumption behavior (e.g., of alcohol). Empirical findings show the importance of family aspects for these problematic behavior patterns. Currently, it is not clear which specific areas of parent-child relationship are associated in each case and whether there are differences between substance-related and substance-unrelated problematic behavioral patterns. Methods: We surveyed 480 adolescents (45.2% females, mean age = 16.84 years) with standardized instruments regarding the mother-child relationship as well as problematic gaming, problematic social media use, and problematic alcohol use. We conducted correlation and multiple linear regression analyses (separately for problematic gaming, problematic social media use, and problematic alcohol use) as well as a multivariate multiple regression analysis. Results: In the regression analyses, more conflicts with the mother were related to all three behavioral patterns. However, lower cohesion was only statistically significantly associated with problematic alcohol use, but not with problematic gaming and problematic social media use, whereas lower autonomy and more frequent punishment of the child were statistically significantly related to problematic gaming and problematic social media use, but not to problematic alcohol use. Discussion/Conclusion: The findings indicate partially different relational dynamics for substance-related and substance-unrelated problem behaviors (interestingly, for cohesion and autonomy, the 95% confidence intervals of the standardized regression coefficients were not overlapping). The results of the present study could be used in family-based prevention approaches or in treatments in the clinical setting.