Introduction: Insight in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) is associated with outcomes. Although the neurocognitive basis of insight is widely accepted, the specific contribution of decision-making (Jumping to Conclusions [JTC]), Cognitive Insight (CI), and Theory of Mind (ToM) to insight remains unclear. Methods: The sample included N = 77 SSD outpatients aged 18–64 years from a randomized controlled trial of metacognitive training. Assessments included JTC-Beads Task, CI-Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, ToM-Hinting Task, and the Emotions Recognition Test Faces. Statistics: hierarchical multivariable linear regression models tested their contribution to total insight (TI) and three insight dimensions – illness recognition (IR), symptom relabelling (SR), and treatment compliance (TC) – measured with the Schedule for the Assessment of Insight – Expanded version, whilst adjusting for potential confounders. Results: Bivariate analyses showed that CI was associated with TI (R2 change = 0.214; p < 0.001), IR (R2 change = 0.154; p = 0.003), and SR (R2 change = 0.168; p = 0.003), while JTC predicted IR (R2 change = 0.790; p = 0.020). Multivariable regression models showed that CI predicted TI (R2 change = 0.116; p = 0.036) and SR (R2 change = 0.166, p = 0.011), whereas JTC was linked with IR (R2 change = 0.710; p = 0.026). ToM was not linked with any insight score. No cognitive variable was associated with treatment compliance. Discussion: Results supported the (meta)cognitive model of insight in SSD. JTC and CI emerged as the main (meta)cognitive processes underlying insight. Metacognitive interventions may therefore improve insight in SSD, although these therapies alone may fail to address treatment compliance.

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