Background: Dispositional mindfulness deficits and psychopathic personality traits have been shown to be closely associated and independent predictors of antisocial behaviors (AB) in young adults. However, the interaction effects of these 2 factors have not yet been explored. The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of dispositional mindfulness and psychopathic traits to ABs in a college student sample. Methods: Participants were 1,572 students from different French universities who completed self-report questionnaires. Regression analyses were conducted in order to test a moderation model between psychopathic traits and AB. Results: Moderation analyses revealed that dispositional mindfulness interacted with psychopathic personality traits in predicting AB. In males with high levels of dispositional mindfulness, as psychopathic traits increased, AB increased less than in males with low levels of dispositional mindfulness. Conclusions: The present study suggests possible implications for prevention and treatment of AB among non-clinical young adults with relatively high psychopathic traits.

1.
Burt
SA
,
Donnellan
MB
.
Development and validation of the Subtypes of Antisocial Behavior Questionnaire
.
Aggress Behav
.
2009
Sep-Oct
;
35
(
5
):
376
98
.
[PubMed]
0096-140X
2.
Foster
EM
,
Jones
DE
.
The high costs of aggression: public expenditures resulting from conduct disorder
.
Am J Public Health
.
2005
Oct
;
95
(
10
):
1767
72
.
[PubMed]
0090-0036
3.
Odgers
CL
,
Caspi
A
,
Broadbent
JM
,
Dickson
N
,
Hancox
RJ
,
Harrington
H
, et al
Prediction of differential adult health burden by conduct problem subtypes in males
.
Arch Gen Psychiatry
.
2007
Apr
;
64
(
4
):
476
84
.
[PubMed]
0003-990X
4.
Vize
CE
,
Miller
JD
,
Lynam
DR
.
FFM facets and their relations with different forms of antisocial behavior: an expanded meta-analysis
.
J Crim Justice
.
2018
;
57
:
67
75
. 0047-2352
5.
Frick
PJ
,
Ray
JV
,
Thornton
LC
,
Kahn
RE
.
Can callous-unemotional traits enhance the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of serious conduct problems in children and adolescents? A comprehensive review
.
Psychol Bull
.
2014
Jan
;
140
(
1
):
1
57
.
[PubMed]
0033-2909
6.
Kimonis
ER
,
Fanti
K
,
Goldweber
A
,
Marsee
MA
,
Frick
PJ
,
Cauffman
E
.
Callous-unemotional traits in incarcerated adolescents
.
Psychol Assess
.
2014
Mar
;
26
(
1
):
227
37
.
[PubMed]
1040-3590
7.
DeLisi
M
.
Psychopathy as unified theory of crime
.
New York
:
Palgrave Macmillan
;
2016
.
8.
Chabrol
H
,
van Leeuwen
N
,
Rodgers
R
,
Séjourné
N
.
Contributions of psychopathic, narcissistic, machiavellian, and sadistic personality traits to juvenile delinquency
.
Pers Individ Dif
.
2009
;
47
(
7
):
734
9
. 0191-8869
9.
Hecht
LK
,
Berg
JM
,
Lilienfeld
SO
,
Latzman
RD
.
Parsing the heterogeneity of psychopathy and aggression: differential associations across dimensions and gender
.
Pers Disord
.
2016
Jan
;
7
(
1
):
2
14
.
[PubMed]
1949-2715
10.
Hare
RD
,
Neumann
CS
.
The role of antisociality in the psychopathy construct: comment on Skeem and Cooke (2010)
.
Psychol Assess
.
2010
Jun
;
22
(
2
):
446
54
.
[PubMed]
1040-3590
11.
Skeem
JL
,
Cooke
DJ
.
Is criminal behavior a central component of psychopathy? Conceptual directions for resolving the debate
.
Psychol Assess
.
2010
Jun
;
22
(
2
):
433
45
.
[PubMed]
1040-3590
12.
Steinert
SW
,
Lishner
DA
,
Vitacco
MJ
,
Hong
PY
.
Conceptualizing successful psychopathy: an elaboration of the moderated-expression model
.
Aggr Viol Behav
.
2017
;
36
:
44
51
.
13.
Fonagy
P
,
Bateman
AW
.
Adversity, attachment, and mentalizing
.
Compr Psychiatry
.
2016
Jan
;
64
:
59
66
.
[PubMed]
0010-440X
14.
Bateman
A
,
Fonagy
P
.
Psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: mentalization-based treatment
.
Oxford
:
Oxford University Press
;
2004
.
15.
Semerari
A
,
Carcione
A
,
Dimaggio
G
,
Falcone
M
,
Nicolo
G
,
Procacci
M
, et al
How to evaluate metacognitive functioning in psychotherapy? The metacognition assessment scale and its applications
.
Clin Psychol Psychother
.
2003
;
10
(
4
):
238
61
. 1063-3995
16.
Dimaggio
G
,
Lysaker
PH
.
Metacognition and mentalizing in the psychotherapy of patients with psychosis and personality disorders
.
J Clin Psychol
.
2015
Feb
;
71
(
2
):
117
24
.
[PubMed]
0021-9762
17.
Kabat-Zinn
J
.
Wherever you go, there you are: Mindfulness meditation in everyday life
.
New York
:
Hyperion
;
1994
.
18.
Fix
RL
,
Fix
ST
.
The effects of mindfulness-based treatments for aggression: A critical review
.
Aggress Violent Behav
.
2013
;
18
(
2
):
219
27
. 1359-1789
19.
Zoogman
S
,
Goldberg
SB
,
Hoyt
WT
,
Miller
L
.
Mindfulness interventions with youth: A meta-analysis
.
Mindfulness
.
2015
;
6
(
2
):
290
302
. 1868-8527
20.
Kuyken
W
,
Watkins
E
,
Holden
E
,
White
K
,
Taylor
RS
,
Byford
S
, et al
How does mindfulness-based cognitive therapy work?
Behav Res Ther
.
2010
Nov
;
48
(
11
):
1105
12
.
[PubMed]
0005-7967
21.
Papies
EK
,
Barsalou
LW
,
Custers
R
.
Mindful Attention Prevents Mindless Impulses
.
Soc Psychol Personal Sci
.
2011
;
3
(
3
):
291
9
. 1948-5506
22.
Borders
A
,
Earleywine
M
,
Jajodia
A
.
Could mindfulness decrease anger, hostility, and aggression by decreasing rumination?
Aggress Behav
.
2010
Jan-Feb
;
36
(
1
):
28
44
.
[PubMed]
0096-140X
23.
Brown
KW
,
Ryan
RM
.
The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being
.
J Pers Soc Psychol
.
2003
Apr
;
84
(
4
):
822
48
.
[PubMed]
0022-3514
24.
Heppner
WL
,
Kernis
MH
,
Lakey
CE
,
Campbell
WK
,
Goldman
BM
,
Davis
PJ
, et al
Mindfulness as a means of reducing aggressive behavior: dispositional and situational evidence
.
Aggress Behav
.
2008
Sep-Oct
;
34
(
5
):
486
96
.
[PubMed]
0096-140X
25.
Vandana
K
,
Mamta
M
,
Singh
S
.
Understanding aggression among youth in the context of mindfulness
.
Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing
.
2017
;
8
:
1377
9
.
26.
Liang
LH
,
Brown
DJ
,
Ferris
DL
,
Hanig
S
,
Lian
H
,
Keeping
LM
.
The dimensions and mechanisms of mindfulness in regulating aggressive behaviors
.
J Appl Psychol
.
2018
Mar
;
103
(
3
):
281
99
.
[PubMed]
0021-9010
27.
Peters
JR
,
Smart
LM
,
Eisenlohr-Moul
TA
,
Geiger
PJ
,
Smith
GT
,
Baer
RA
.
Anger rumination as a mediator of the relationship between mindfulness and aggression: the utility of a multidimensional mindfulness model
.
J Clin Psychol
.
2015
Sep
;
71
(
9
):
871
84
.
[PubMed]
0021-9762
28.
Velotti
P
,
Garofalo
C
,
D’Aguanno
M
,
Petrocchi
C
,
Popolo
R
,
Salvatore
G
, et al
Mindfulness moderates the relationship between aggression and Antisocial Personality Disorder traits: preliminary investigation with an offender sample
.
Compr Psychiatry
.
2016
Jan
;
64
:
38
45
.
[PubMed]
0010-440X
29.
Bateman
A
,
Fonagy
P
. Antisocial personality disorder. In:
Bateman
A
,
Fonagy
P
, editors
.
Handbook ofmentalizing in mental health practice
.
Washington (DC)
:
American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc
;
2011
. pp.
357
78
.
30.
Cleckley
HM
. (
1955
). The mask of sanity. 3rd edit. St. Louis: MO Mosby; 1955.
31.
Velotti
P
,
Garofalo
C
,
Dimaggio
G
,
Fonagy
P
.
Mindfulness, Alexithymia, and Empathy Moderate Relations Between Trait Aggression and Antisocial Personality Disorder Traits
.
Mindfulness
.
2018
;
•••
:
1
9
. 1868-8527
32.
Venables
NC
,
Hall
JR
,
Patrick
CJ
.
Differentiating psychopathy from antisocial personality disorder: a triarchic model perspective
.
Psychol Med
.
2014
Apr
;
44
(
5
):
1005
13
.
[PubMed]
0033-2917
33.
Crego
C
,
Widiger
TA
.
Psychopathy and the DSM
.
J Pers
.
2015
Dec
;
83
(
6
):
665
77
.
[PubMed]
0022-3506
34.
Taubner
S
,
White
LO
,
Zimmermann
J
,
Fonagy
P
,
Nolte
T
.
Attachment-related mentalization moderates the relationship between psychopathic traits and proactive aggression in adolescence
.
J Abnorm Child Psychol
.
2013
Aug
;
41
(
6
):
929
38
.
[PubMed]
0091-0627
35.
Salekin
RT
,
Rogers
R
,
Sewell
KW
.
Construct validity of psychopathy in a female offender sample: a multitrait-multimethod evaluation
.
J Abnorm Psychol
.
1997
Nov
;
106
(
4
):
576
85
.
[PubMed]
0021-843X
36.
Salekin
RT
,
Rogers
R
,
Ustad
KL
,
Sewell
KW
.
Psychopathy and recidivism among female inmates
.
Law Hum Behav
.
1998
Feb
;
22
(
1
):
109
28
.
[PubMed]
0147-7307
37.
Bohlmeijer
E
,
ten Klooster
PM
,
Fledderus
M
,
Veehof
M
,
Baer
R
.
Psychometric properties of the five facet mindfulness questionnaire in depressed adults and development of a short form
.
Assessment
.
2011
Sep
;
18
(
3
):
308
20
.
[PubMed]
1073-1911
38.
Heeren
A
,
Douilliez
C
,
Peschard
V
,
Debrauwere
L
,
Philippot
P
.
Cross-cultural validity of the Five Facets Mindfulness Questionnaire: adaptation and validation in a French speaking sample
.
Rev Eur Psychol App
.
2011
;
61
(
3
):
147
51
.
39.
Colins
OF
,
Andershed
H
.
The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory-Short Version in a general population sample of emerging adults
.
Psychol Assess
.
2016
May
;
28
(
5
):
449
57
.
[PubMed]
1040-3590
40.
D’Acremont
M
,
Van Der Linden
M
,
Axelson
H
,
Flykt
A
,
Vonèche
J
.
French translation of the Youth Psychopathic traits Inventory.
Unpublished material;
2002
.
41.
Corcoran
KM
,
Farb
N
,
Anderson
A
,
Segal
ZV
. Mindfulness and emotion regulation: Outcomes and possible mediating mechanisms. In:
Kring
AM
,
Sloan
DM
, editors
.
Emotion regulation and psychopathology: A transdiagnostic approach to etiology and treatment, 339-355. New York
.
Guilford
;
2010
.
42.
Gosling
SD
,
Vazire
S
,
Srivastava
S
,
John
OP
.
Should we trust web-based studies? A comparative analysis of six preconceptions about internet questionnaires
.
Am Psychol
.
2004
Feb-Mar
;
59
(
2
):
93
104
.
[PubMed]
0003-066X
43.
Bateman
A
,
O’Connell
J
,
Lorenzini
N
,
Gardner
T
,
Fonagy
P
.
A randomised controlled trial of mentalization-based treatment versus structured clinical management for patients with comorbid borderline personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder
.
BMC Psychiatry
.
2016
Aug
;
16
(
1
):
304
.
[PubMed]
1471-244X
44.
Misso
D
,
Schweitzer
RD
,
Dimaggio
G
. Metacognition: a potential mechanism of change in the psychotherapy of perpetrators of domestic violence. J Psychother Integr
2018
; Advance online publication.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.