Background/Aim: Anxiety disorders are associated with impairments in several aspects of cognitive processing. In this study we investigated three such aspects, i.e., time perspective, repetitive negative thinking (worry and rumination), and executive functioning, in persons with anxiety disorders compared to healthy controls and examined the influence of negative past and negative future time perspective and executive functioning on worry and rumination. Method: Thirty-six psychiatric outpatients with anxiety disorders (mean age = 30.83, SD = 11.74; 30 females and 6 males) and 44 healthy controls (mean age = 28.89, SD = 9.54; 24 females and 20 males) completed inventories of time perspective and repetitive negative thinking, and tasks measuring executive functioning (shifting and inhibition). Results: The groups (patient vs. control) differed significantly on all time perspective dimensions (past, present, and future), with largest effect sizes observed for negative past and negative future. Regression analyses with executive functioning, negative past, and negative future time perspectives as predictors, and worry and rumination as outcomes, showed that negative past time perspective was the best predictor for rumination, whereas negative future time perspective more strongly predicted worry. Executive functioning was not a significant predictor of either worry or rumination. Conclusions: Individuals with anxiety disorders demonstrated systematic biases in all time perspective dimensions, particularly negative past and negative future time perspective, which was further related to worry and rumination. Thus, interventions targeting temporal focus may be one way of reducing repetitive negative thinking. A major limitation of this study was the use of a cross-section design.

1.
Kessler
RC
,
Berglund
P
,
Demler
O
,
Jin
R
,
Merikangas
KR
,
Walters
EE
.
Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication
.
Arch Gen Psychiatry
.
2005
Jun
;
62
(
6
):
593
602
.
[PubMed]
0003-990X
2.
Lenze
EJ
,
Wetherell
JL
.
A lifespan view of anxiety disorders
.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci
.
2011
;
13
(
4
):
381
99
.
[PubMed]
1294-8322
3.
Snyder
HR
,
Miyake
A
,
Hankin
BL
.
Advancing understanding of executive function impairments and psychopathology: bridging the gap between clinical and cognitive approaches
.
Front Psychol
.
2015
Mar
;
6
:
328
.
[PubMed]
1664-1078
4.
Miloyan
B
,
Bulley
A
,
Suddendorf
T
.
Episodic foresight and anxiety: proximate and ultimate perspectives
.
Br J Clin Psychol
.
2016
Mar
;
55
(
1
):
4
22
.
[PubMed]
0144-6657
5.
Olatunji
BO
,
Naragon-Gainey
K
,
Wolitzky-Taylor
KB
.
Specificity of rumination in anxiety and depression: A multimodal meta-analysis
.
Clin Psychol Sci Pract
.
2013
;
20
(
3
):
225
57
. 0969-5893
6.
Zimbardo
PG
,
Boyd
JN
.
Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric
.
J Pers Soc Psychol
.
1999
;
77
(
6
):
1271
88
. 0022-3514
7.
Lewin
K
: Field Theory in the Social Sciences: Selected Theoretical Papers. Oxford England, Harpers,
1951
.
8.
Carelli
MG
,
Wiberg
B
,
Wiberg
M
.
Development and construct validation of the Swedish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory
.
Eur J Psychol Assess
.
2011
;
27
(
4
):
220
7
. 1015-5759
9.
Holman
EA
,
Silver
RC
,
Mogle
JA
,
Scott
SB
.
Adversity, time, and well-being: A longitudinal analysis of time perspective in adulthood
.
Psychol Aging
.
2016
Sep
;
31
(
6
):
640
51
.
[PubMed]
0882-7974
10.
van Beek
W
,
Berghuis
H
,
Kerkhof
A
,
Beekman
A
.
Time perspective, personality and psychopathology: zimbardo’s time perspective inventory in psychiatry
.
Time Soc
.
2011
;
20
(
3
):
364
74
. 0961-463X
11.
Blomgren
AS
,
Svahn
K
,
Åström
E
,
Rönnlund
M
.
Coping strategies in late adolescence: relationships to parental attachment and time perspective
.
J Genet Psychol
.
2016
May-Jun
;
177
(
3
):
85
96
.
[PubMed]
0022-1325
12.
Rönnlund
M
,
Åström
E
,
Carelli
MG
.
Time perspective in late adulthood: aging patterns in past, present and future dimensions, deviations from balance, and associations with subjective well-being
.
Timing Time Percept
.
2017
;
5
(
1
):
77
98
. 2213-445X
13.
Åström
E
,
Wiberg
B
,
Sircova
A
,
Wiberg
M
,
Carelli
MG
.
Insights into features of anxiety through multiple aspects of psychological time
.
J Integr Psychol Ther
.
2014
;
2
(
1
):
1
7
.
14.
Ehring
T
,
Watkins
ER
.
Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process
.
Int J Cogn Ther
.
2008
;
1
(
3
):
192
205
. 1937-1209
15.
Segerstrom
SC
,
Tsao
JC
,
Alden
LE
,
Craske
MG
.
Worry and rumination: repetitive thought as a concomitant and predictor of negative mood
.
Cognit Ther Res
.
2000
;
24
(
6
):
671
88
. 0147-5916
16.
Dar
KA
,
Iqbal
N
.
Worry and rumination in generalized anxiety disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder
.
J Psychol
.
2015
;
149
(
8
):
866
80
.
[PubMed]
0022-3980
17.
McEvoy
PM
,
Watson
H
,
Watkins
ER
,
Nathan
P
.
The relationship between worry, rumination, and comorbidity: evidence for repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic construct
.
J Affect Disord
.
2013
Oct
;
151
(
1
):
313
20
.
[PubMed]
0165-0327
18.
McLaughlin
KA
,
Nolen-Hoeksema
S
.
Rumination as a transdiagnostic factor in depression and anxiety
.
Behav Res Ther
.
2011
Mar
;
49
(
3
):
186
93
.
[PubMed]
0005-7967
19.
Nolen-Hoeksema
S
,
Wisco
BE
,
Lyubomirsky
S
.
Rethinking Rumination
.
Perspect Psychol Sci
.
2008
Sep
;
3
(
5
):
400
24
.
[PubMed]
1745-6916
20.
Miyake
A
,
Friedman
NP
,
Emerson
MJ
,
Witzki
AH
,
Howerter
A
,
Wager
TD
.
The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex “Frontal Lobe” tasks: a latent variable analysis
.
Cognit Psychol
.
2000
Aug
;
41
(
1
):
49
100
.
[PubMed]
0010-0285
21.
Diamond
A
.
Executive functions
.
Annu Rev Psychol
.
2013
;
64
(
1
):
135
68
.
[PubMed]
0066-4308
22.
Salthouse
TA
.
Relations between cognitive abilities and measures of executive functioning
.
Neuropsychology
.
2005
Jul
;
19
(
4
):
532
45
.
[PubMed]
0894-4105
23.
Benzina
N
,
Mallet
L
,
Burguière
E
,
N’Diaye
K
,
Pelissolo
A
.
Cognitive dysfunction in obsessive-compulsive disorder
.
Curr Psychiatry Rep
.
2016
Sep
;
18
(
9
):
80
.
[PubMed]
1523-3812
24.
Polak
AR
,
Witteveen
AB
,
Reitsma
JB
,
Olff
M
.
The role of executive function in posttraumatic stress disorder: a systematic review
.
J Affect Disord
.
2012
Dec
;
141
(
1
):
11
21
.
[PubMed]
0165-0327
25.
Tempesta
D
,
Mazza
M
,
Serroni
N
,
Moschetta
FS
,
Di Giannantonio
M
,
Ferrara
M
, et al
Neuropsychological functioning in young subjects with generalized anxiety disorder with and without pharmacotherapy
.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry
.
2013
Aug
;
45
:
236
41
.
[PubMed]
0278-5846
26.
Derakshan
N
,
Ansari
TL
,
Hansard
M
,
Shoker
L
,
Eysenck
MW
.
Anxiety, inhibition, efficiency, and effectiveness. An investigation using antisaccade task
.
Exp Psychol
.
2009
;
56
(
1
):
48
55
.
[PubMed]
1618-3169
27.
Eysenck
MW
,
Derakshan
N
,
Santos
R
,
Calvo
MG
.
Anxiety and cognitive performance: attentional control theory
.
Emotion
.
2007
May
;
7
(
2
):
336
53
.
[PubMed]
1528-3542
28.
Miguel
P
. The effects of anxiety on cognitive performance; unpublished doctoral thesis, Royal Holloway, University of London,
2012
.
29.
Gustavson
DE
,
Miyake
A
.
Trait worry is associated with difficulties in working memory updating
.
Cogn Emotion
.
2016
Nov
;
30
(
7
):
1289
303
.
[PubMed]
0269-9931
30.
Whitmer
AJ
,
Banich
MT
.
Inhibition versus switching deficits in different forms of rumination
.
Psychol Sci
.
2007
Jun
;
18
(
6
):
546
53
.
[PubMed]
0956-7976
31.
Koster
EH
,
De Lissnyder
E
,
Derakshan
N
,
De Raedt
R
.
Understanding depressive rumination from a cognitive science perspective: the impaired disengagement hypothesis
.
Clin Psychol Rev
.
2011
Feb
;
31
(
1
):
138
45
.
[PubMed]
0272-7358
32.
Joormann
J
,
Yoon
KL
,
Zetsche
U
.
Cognitive inhibition in depression
.
Appl Prev Psychol
.
2007
;
12
(
3
):
128
39
. 0962-1849
33.
American Psychiatric Association (APA)
.
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders
. Text rev., 4th ed.
Washington (DC)
:
Author
;
2000
.
34.
Smith
GJ
,
Nyman
E
,
Hentschel
U
.
Manual for Serial Color-Word Test
(2nd ed). Elanders Sweden, Assessio,
2007
.
35.
MacLeod
CM
.
Half a century of research on the Stroop effect: an integrative review
.
Psychol Bull
.
1991
Mar
;
109
(
2
):
163
203
.
[PubMed]
0033-2909
36.
Jersild
AT
.
Mental set and shift
.
Arch Psychol
.
1927
;
89
:
5
82
.0003-9640
37.
Meyer
TJ
,
Miller
ML
,
Metzger
RL
,
Borkovec
TD
.
Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire
.
Behav Res Ther
.
1990
;
28
(
6
):
487
95
.
[PubMed]
0005-7967
38.
Brown
TA
,
Antony
MM
,
Barlow
DH
.
Psychometric properties of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire in a clinical anxiety disorders sample
.
Behav Res Ther
.
1992
Jan
;
30
(
1
):
33
7
.
[PubMed]
0005-7967
39.
Treynor
W
,
Gonzalez
R
,
Nolen-Hoeksema
S
.
Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis
.
Cognit Ther Res
.
2003
;
27
(
3
):
247
59
. 0147-5916
40.
Cohen
J
.
Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences
.
New York (NY)
:
Academy Press
;
1988
.
41.
Field
A
.
Discovering Statistics Using SPSS
. 3rd ed.
Los Angeles (CA)
:
Sage Publications
;
2009
.
42.
Menard
S
.
Applied Logistic Regression Analysis
.
Thousand Oaks (CA)
:
Sage
;
1995
.
43.
Tabachnik
BG
,
Fidell
LS
.
Using Multivariate Statistics
. 4th ed.
Needham Heights (MA)
:
Allyn and Bacon
;
2001
.
44.
Stewart
SA
: The effects of benzodiazepines on cognition. J Clin Psychiatry
2005
;66/suppl 2/:9-13.
45.
Castaneda
AE
,
Tuulio-Henriksson
A
,
Marttunen
M
,
Suvisaari
J
,
Lönnqvist
J
.
A review on cognitive impairments in depressive and anxiety disorders with a focus on young adults
.
J Affect Disord
.
2008
Feb
;
106
(
1-2
):
1
27
.
[PubMed]
0165-0327
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.