Background: Nowadays, the assessment of psychopathy relies on semistructured interviews plus file reviews. In order to improve the predictive validity of psychopathy at the individual level, tools that are not based on the rating of signs and symptoms are in great need. Sampling and Methods: The present study was conducted in a representative sample of 204 Spanish sentenced inmates. These inmates have served at least 6 months of their sentence at the Pereiro de Aguiar (Ourense, Spain) penitentiary. Psychopathy signs and symptoms were scored through interview and file review. The Implicit Association Test (IAT) and heart rate variability (HRV) experiments were also conducted. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was performed as a control measure. Results: Spectral HRV indices were able to detect psychopathic inmates at a significant level, while IAT experiments and the IGT could not discriminate them. HRV indices showed a more significant difference when assessing the affective-interpersonal dimensions of psychopathy. Conclusions: An HRV experiment is better than IAT in order to detect psychopathy in a representative sample of Spanish inmates.

1.
Hare RD, Neumann CS: Structural models of psychopathy. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2005;7:57-64.
2.
Olver ME, Wong SC: Short- and long-term recidivism prediction of the PCL-R and the effects of age: a 24-year follow-up. Personal Disord 2015;6:97-105.
3.
Cooke DJ, Michie C: Limitations of diagnostic precision and predictive utility in the individual case: a challenge for forensic practice. Law Hum Behav 2010;34:259-274.
4.
Wright EM: The measurement of psychopathy: dimensional and taxometric approaches. Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol 2009;53:464-481.
5.
Hare RD, Clark D, Grann M, Thornton D: Psychopathy and the predictive validity of the PCL-R: an international perspective. Behav Sci Law 2000;18:623-645.
6.
Cooke DJ, Michie C: Psychopathy across cultures: North America and Scotland compared. J Abnorm Psychol 1999;108:58-68.
7.
Flórez G, Casas A, Kreis MK, Forti L, Martínez J, Fernández J, Conde M, Vázquez-Noguerol R: A prototypicality validation of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) model Spanish version. J Pers Disord 2015;29:707-718.
8.
Sellbom M, Cooke DJ, Hart SD: Construct validity of the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychopathic Personality (CAPP) concept map: getting closer to the core of psychopathy. Int J Forensic Ment Health 2015;14:172-180.
9.
Herpers PC, Rommelse NN, Bons DM, Buitelaar JK, Scheepers F: Callous-unemotional traits as a cross-disorders construct. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2012;47:2045-2064.
10.
Malik M, Camm AJ: Heart Rate Variability. New York, Futura, 1995.
11.
Sztajzel J: Heart rate variability: a noninvasive electrocardiographic method to measure the autonomic nervous system. Swiss Med Wkly 2004;134:514-522.
12.
Gula LJ, Krahn AD, Skanes A, Ferguson KA, George C, Yee R, Klein GJ: Heart rate variability in obstructive sleep apnea: a prospective study and frequency domain analysis. Ann Noninvasive Electrocardiol 2003;8:144-149.
13.
Williams DP, Hill LK, Koenig J, Thayer JF: Examining the association between the low-to-high-frequency ratio and impedance derived measures of cardiac autonomic balance and regulation; in 2016 - Annual Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation Symposium Proceedings - CD. Research Triangle Park, International Society of Automation, 2016, pp 264-270.
14.
Thayer JF, Hansen AL, Saus-Rose E, Johnsen BH: Heart rate variability, prefrontal neural function, and cognitive performance: the neurovisceral integration perspective on self-regulation, adaptation, and health. Ann Behav Med 2009;37:141-153.
15.
Williams DP, Cash C, Rankin C, Bernardi A, Koenig J, Thayer JF: Resting heart rate variability predicts self-reported difficulties in emotion regulation: a focus on different facets of emotion regulation. Front Psychol 2015;6:261.
16.
Di Simplicio M, Costoloni G, Western D, Hanson B, Taggart P, Harmer CJ: Decreased heart rate variability during emotion regulation in subjects at risk for psychopathology. Psychol Med 2012;42:1775-1783.
17.
Hansen AL, Johnsen BH, Thornton D, Waage L, Thayer JF (2007): Facets of psychopathy, heart rate variability and cognitive function. J Pers Disord 2007;21:568-582.
18.
Greenwald AG, Nosek BA, Banaji MR: Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm. J Pers Soc Psychol 2003;85:197-216.
19.
Ostafin BD, Marlatt GA, Greenwald AG: Drinking without thinking: an implicit measure of alcohol motivation predicts failure to control alcohol use. Behav Res Ther 2008;46:1210-1219.
20.
Harrison DP, Stritzke WG, Fay N, Ellison TM, Hudaib AR: Probing the implicit suicidal mind: does the Death/Suicide Implicit Association Test reveal a desire to die, or a diminished desire to live? Psychol Assess 2014;26:831-840.
21.
Bechara A: Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) Professional Manual. Lutz, Psychological Assessment Resource, 2007.
22.
Dean AC, Altstein LL, Berman ME, Constans JI, Sugar CA, McCloskey MS: Secondary psychopathy, but not primary psychopathy, is associated with risky decision-making in noninstitutionalized young adults. Pers Individ Dif 2013;54:272-277.
23.
Kranzler HR, Kadden RM, Babor TF, Rounsaville BJ: Longitudinal, expert, all data procedure for psychiatric diagnosis in patients with psychoactive substance use disorders. J Nerv Ment Dis 1994;182:277-283.
24.
Lang PJ, Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN: International Affective Picture System (IAPS): Affective Ratings of Pictures and Instruction Manual. Technical Report A-8. Gainesville, University of Florida, 2008.
25.
Rodríguez-Liñares L, Cuesta P, Álvarez R, Méndez AJ, Lado MJ, Vila XA: VARVI: a software tool for heart rate Variability Analysis in Response to Visual Stimuli. Comput Cardiol 2013;40:401-404.
26.
Rodríguez-Liñares L, Méndez AJ, Lado MJ, Olivieri D, Vila XA, Gómez-Conde I: An open source tool for heart rate variability spectral analysis. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2011;103:39-50.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.