Background: The present pilot study investigated the relationship between temperament and the risk for exercise dependence (EXD). Sampling and Methods: A total of 32 female patients with eating disorders (potentially at risk for secondary EXD) and 29 female elite athletes without eating disturbances (potentially at risk for primary EXD) answered the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q), the Exercise Dependence Scale-German version (EDS-G), the Behavioral Inhibition System/Behavioral Activation System (BIS/BAS) scales, and the effortful control subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire (ATQ-EC). Results: There were significant positive correlations of the EDS-G with the BIS in women with an eating disorder and with the BAS in elite athletes. No significant association was found between the EDS-G and effortful control. Conclusions: The results indicate that the risk for EXD is associated with avoidance tendencies in women with eating disorders and with approach tendencies in elite athletes. Implications for secondary and primary EXD are discussed.

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