Background: Reduplicative paramnesia (RP) is a content-specific delusional misidentification syndrome (DMS) which has received little attention in the research literature relative to other DMS. RP is thought to result from an organic rather than psychiatric cause distinguishing it from other DMS. Our systematic review examines the research literature investigating the prevalence, symptomatology and potential neurologic mechanisms underlying RP. Sampling and Methods: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Library were searched (from 1966 to February 10, 2012) with the reference lists of relevant articles examined. Case reports, clinical studies and post-mortem studies focusing on, or referring to, RP were included. Results: There is a paucity of literature regarding the potential mechanisms underlying the psychological, cognitive and neurological aspects of RP. The available literature is limited by the lack of systematic clinical studies and in vivo investigations with current findings remaining only speculative. However, there does appear to be a consensus that RP may have a neurologic rather than psychiatric cause and that right and bifrontal lesions as well as the cognitive dissonance associated with memory, visuospatial and impaired conceptual integration are common factors in RP presentation. Conclusions: This area requires further extensive systematic research with supplementary in vivo data. Current studies suggest that focal lesions within the frontal lobe may account for the onset of RP.

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