Background: Religiosity and spirituality have been found to be substantially associated with a variety of mental health and illness parameters. However, relevant empirical evidence is sparse, and more research is needed in order to further understand what role religiosity/spirituality plays in the development, progression and healing process of a psychiatric disease. Thus, the purpose of this study was to find out more information about the religious/spiritual needs of anxious/depressive inpatients. Sampling and Methods: A total sample of 200 well-characterized anxious/depressive inpatients was investigated. Results were compared to those from an adjusted group of healthy individuals (n = 200). A newly developed Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being was applied to both groups, together with established psychiatric measures (e.g. Beck Depression Inventory). Results: Of the dimensions measured, Hope and Forgiveness turned out to be the strongest negative correlates of anxious/depressive symptoms (p < 0.001). Moreover, a lower degree of Hope (p < 0.001) and Experiences of Sense and Meaning (p < 0.01) was found in the patient group compared to healthy controls. In accordance with the literature, religiosity was confirmed to be a substantial suicidal buffer (p < 0.01). Conclusions: Our results account for a more comprehensive psychiatric evaluation, emphasizing in particular the role that religiosity/spirituality plays in overall well-being. Furthermore, religious/spiritual well-being might be considered an important resource to explore, in particular for affective mentally disordered patients.

Miller WR, Thoresen CE: Spirituality and health; in Miller WR (ed): Integrating Spirituality into Treatment. Resources for Practitioners. Washington, American Psychological Association, 1999, pp 3–19.
Kendler KS, Liu XQ, Gardner CO, McCullough ME, Larson D, Prescott CA: Dimensions of religiosity and their relationship to lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorders. Am J Psychiatry 2003;160:496–503.
Koenig HG: Religion and remission of depression in medical inpatients with heart failure/pulmonary disease. J Nerv Ment Dis 2007;195:389–395.
Winter U, Hauri D, Huber S, Jenewein J, Schnyder U, Kraemer B: The psychological outcome of religious coping with stressful life events in a Swiss sample of church attendees. Psychother Psychosom 2009;78:240–244.
Smith TB, McCullough ME, Poll J: Religiousness and depression: evidence for a main effect and the moderating influence of stressful life events. Psychol Bull 2003;129:614–636.
Sloan RP, Bagiella E, Powell T: Religion, spirituality, and medicine. Lancet 1999;353:664–667.
Braam AW: Religion/spirituality and mood disorders; in Huguelet P, Koenig HG (eds): Religion and Spirituality in Psychiatry. Cambridge, University Press, 2009, pp 97–113.
Colucci E, Martin G: Religion and spirituality along the suicidal path. Suicide Life Threat Behav 2008;38:229–244.
Sorri H, Henriksson M, Lönnquist J: Religiosity and suicide: findings from a nation-wide psychological autopsy study. Crisis 1996;17:123–127.
Pargament KI: The psychology of religion and spirituality? Yes and no. Int J Psychol Relig 1999;9:3–16.
Huguelet P, Koenig HG: Introduction: key concepts; in Huguelet P, Koenig HG (eds): Religion and Spirituality in Psychiatry. Cambridge, University Press, 2009, pp 1–5.
Unterrainer HF: Seelenfinsternis? Struktur und Inhalt der Gottesbeziehung im klinisch-psychiatrischen Feld. Münster, Waxmann, 2010.
Unterrainer HF, Wallner SJ, Ladenhauf, KH, Liebmann PM: MI-RSWB 48. Die Entwicklung eines multidimensionalen Inventars zum religiös-spirituellen Befinden. Diagnostica 2010;2:82–93.
Unterrainer HF, Ladenhauf KH, Wallner-Liebmann S, Fink A: Dimensions of Religious/Spiritual Well-Being and their relation to personality and psychological well-being. Pers Individ Dif 2010;49:192–197.
Dilling H, Mombour W, Schmidt MH, Schulte-Markwort E (eds): Internationale Klassifikation psychischer Störungen: ICD 10, Kapitel VII (F): Psychische und Verhaltensstörungen. Bern, Hans Huber, 1994.
Schneider B: Persönlichkeit und Belastungs- bzw. Ressourcenfaktoren; master’s thesis, Konstanz, 1997.
von Zerssen D: Persönlichkeitszüge als Vulnerabilitätsindikatoren – Probleme ihrer Erfassung. Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1994;62:1–13.
Piedmont RL: Does spirituality represent the sixth factor of personality? Spiritual transcendence and the five-factor model. J Pers 1999;67:985–1013.
DeRogatis LR, Melisaratos N: The Brief Symptom Inventory: an introductory report. Psychol Med 1983;13:595–605.
Franke GH: Brief Symptom Inventory von L.R. Derogatis (Kurzversion der SCL-90- R) – Deutsche Version. Göttingen, Beltz Test GmbH, 2000.
Hautzinger M, Bailer M, Worall H, Keller F: Beck-Depressions-Inventar. Bern, Huber, 1994.
CIPS (ed): Internationale Skalen für Psychiatrie. Weinheim, Beltz Test, 1996.
Neumann NU, Schulte RM: Montgomery-Asberg-Depressions-Rating-Skala. Bestimmung der Validität und Interrater-Reliabilität der deutschen Fassung. Psyche 1988;14:911–924.
Saroglou V: Religion and the five factors of personality: a meta-analytic review. Pers Individ Dif 2002;32:15–25.
Dervic K, Oquendo MA, Grunebaum MF, Ellis S, Burke AK, Mann JJ: Religious affiliation and suicide attempt. Am J Psychiatry 2004;161:2303–2308.
McCullough ME, Pargament KI, Thoresen CE (eds): Forgiveness. Theory, Research, and Practice. New York, The Guilford Press, 2000.
Linden M: Posttraumatic embitterment disorder. Psychother Psychosom 2003;72:195–202.
Pargament KI, Smith BW, Koenig HG, Perez L: Patterns of positive and negative religious coping with major life stressors. J Sci Study Relig 1998;37:710–724.
Copyright / Drug Dosage / Disclaimer
Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug.
Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.
You do not currently have access to this content.